publication . Article . 1989

The Ecology of Extinctions in Kelp Forest Communities

James A. Estes; David O. Duggins; Galen B. Rathbun;
Open Access
  • Published: 01 Sep 1989
Abstract
We recognize three levels of extinction–global, local, and ecological – and provide examples of each. The protection and recovery of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) has provided abundant evidence of the consequences of their local extinction from kelp forest communities in the North Pacifc Ocean. These consequences include release of benthic invertebrate populations from limitation by predation; deforestation of kelp beds due to increased grazing by herbivorous sea urchins, one of the otter's main prey; and various cascading effects resulting from the biological and physical importance of kelp in coastal ecosystems. These interactions probably were important agents ...
Persistent Identifiers
Subjects
free text keywords: Ecology, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics, Nature and Landscape Conservation, Invertebrate, Marine biology, Biology, Kelp forest, Ecology, Hydrodamalis, food.ingredient, food, Ecological extinction, Local extinction, Fishery, Extinction, Kelp, biology.organism_classification
Communities
Fisheries and Aquaculture Management
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