Craniometric Indices of Nigeria Skulls
Gnathic Index | Palatal Index | Skull | Anthropometry | Forensic Medicine
Introduction: Craniometric indices show the percentage relationship between different dimensions. It is an important parameter for classification of race and sex of individuals of unknown identity. This study was undertaken to determine the craniometric indices of gnathic, palatal, orbital, cranial and nasal indices of Nigerian skulls.
Materials and Methods: One hundred adult dry skulls, (78 males, and 22 females) free from damage and deformities from eleven Departments of Anatomy in Nigerian Universities were used. Automatic digital and spreading callipers were used for the measurement. Data was analyzed with Graph Pad Prism 5.03. The mean, coefficient of variation, correlation, linear regression, percentiles, sexual dimorphism ratio were calculated.
Results: The male/female ratios for the mean measurements were greater than unity. The mean value of all cranial parameters showed high level of sexual dimorphism. The male gnathic, palatal, orbital, cranial and nasal indices were found to be 99.50, 79.22, 89.59, 76.03, 53.67 respectively while female gnathic, palatal, orbital, cranial and nasal indices were 98.78, 87.66, 87.04, 76.12, 59.11 respectively. Male basion-nasion versus basion-prosthion length had positive correlation and the fit line sloped upward. There was no correlation between female basion-nasion versus basion-prosthion and the fit line was straight. Percentiles of indices showed a progressive increase from 10th - 90th.
Conclusion: The findings from this study will be handy tools in anatomical modelling, in addition to providing information for both cosmetic surgery and medico-legal guide in forensic science.