In article describes social and economic development of Russia in ΧІΧ century. Special attention was paid to the study of different reforms of emperors of the time. They have radically changed the country to better side and put it on the path of intensive socio-economic development. Some of that reforms saved Russia from rebellions, others led to them. Modern scientists have the opportunity to analyze the errors of the time. Many people are interested in what caused these reforms and the consequences they brought. This article answers these questions.