publication . Article . 2012

A New Start for Protein Synthesis

Thomas E. Dever;
Open Access
  • Published: 28 Jun 2012 Journal: Science, volume 336, pages 1,645-1,646 (issn: 0036-8075, eissn: 1095-9203, Copyright policy)
  • Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
Abstract
Recent technical advances have led to the accumulation of vast amounts of DNA sequences, highlighting the importance of understanding how the information in DNA is translated into amino acids and proteins. To decipher this information, the cell first transcribes a "coding" segment of DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA). Next, the ribosome decodes the mRNA in blocks of three consecutive nucleotides, or codons, that each specify an amino acid. But, how does the ribosome know where to start reading on the mRNA? To ensure faithful translation, and thereby yield a functional protein, cells restrict translation initiation to AUG codons that specify the amino acid methionine...
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free text keywords: Multidisciplinary, Transfer RNA, Stop codon, Computational biology, Eukaryotic initiation factor, Genetics, Translational frameshift, Translation (biology), Ribosomal frameshift, Genetic code, Reading frame, Biology
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