<p>UNESCO is launching international consultations aimed at developing a Recommendation on Open Science for adoption by member states in 2021. Its Recommendation will include a common definition, a shared set of values, and proposals for action.<br>
At the invitation of the Canadian Commission for UNESCO, this paper aims to contribute to the consultation process by answering questions such as:<br>
• Why and how should science be “open”? For and with whom?<br>
• Is it simply a matter of making scientific articles and data fully available to researchers around the world at the time of publication, so they do not miss important results th...