GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND MEAT QUALITY OF DOMESTICATED BLUE SWIMMING CRAB (Portunus pelagicus)
Trijuno, Dody Dharmawan
Blue Swimming Crab, Aquaculture, Domestication, Selective Breeding
Blue Swimming Crab (Portunus pelagicus) is one of the commercial crabs traded widely around the world. But, crab aquaculture has not made a significant contribution in meeting the increasing overseas market demand. Some constraints in crab cultivation were high mortality, low and variable growth rate, and low of meat quality. The aims of this research were to produce a superior broodstock through domestication and selective breeding. Superior broodstock was expected to produce a high quality offspring with a high growth rate, high survival rate, and high quality of meat.
The study was conducted over two years (2013-2014) at educational farms of Hasanuddin University, located in Barru Regency, South Sulawesi Province of Indonesia. The research consist of: 1) collection of wild crab for broodstock, 2) spawning, hatching, and larval rearing in backyard hatchery until zoea-5, 3) grow out in brackish water pond for 90 days, 4) selection of broodstock candidate based on size and resistance to evironmental farming. 5) domesticated broodstock rearing. Selective breeding for fast growing traits was carried out up to three generations. Parameters measured were carapace width, weight, growth, and meat quality include the chemical composition, texture, and crab meat yield.
The result showed that the third generation (G3) of domesticated blue swimming crab has a faster growth rate than the first generation (G1). After 90 days rearing in brackish water pond, 78 % of G3 reached 100 mm average of carapace width while the G1 was only 16%. Result of proximate (Table 1), texture, yield, and organoleptic analysis showed that the meat quality of domesticated and wild blue swimming crab were relatively similar.
Table 1. Chemical composition of domesticated and wild blue swimming crab meat
Sample Fraction Crab Sample Composition (%)
Crude Protein Fat Crude Fiber Moisture Ash Nitrogen Free Extracts
Fresh Domesticated 15.89 0.08 0.04 79.85 1.31 2.84
Wild 14.18 0.08 0.03 81.85 2.55 1.32
Dry weight Domesticated 78.85 0.41 0.18 - 2.04 18.53
Wild 78.25 0.43 0.17 - 1.74 19.41
The conclusion of this study was blue swimming crab domestication with selective breeding resulted excel in growth and quality of meat. The use of domesticated G3 broodstock has a good prospects for aquaculture.