publication . Doctoral thesis . 2010

Studio della convezione durante il monsone africano: osservazioni e modellazione della precipitazione e del ruolo della circolazione regionale sulla composizione atmosferica

Orlandi, Emiliano;
Open Access Italian
  • Published: 18 Mar 2010
  • Country: Italy
Abstract
The improvement of knowledge and understanding of the West African Monsoon (WAM) is a fundamental scientific issue with implications on economy, health, water resources and food security in West African countries. In a region where agriculture is mainly rain fed, a delay in the rainy season onset or a dry year could compromise food and water security and lead to dearth conditions. The natural interannual and interseasonal variability of the WAM and the dramatic change from wet conditions (1950s-1960s) to much drier ones (1960s-today) over West Africa represents one of the world strongest variation in the 20th century. Mesoscale convective systems (MCS) are respo...
Subjects
free text keywords: FIS/06 Fisica per il sistema terra e il mezzo circumterrestre, fuochi di biomassa, in traccia, modelli meteorologici, monsone africano, precipitazione, trasporto di gas, convezione, African monsons, convection, meteorological models, precipitation, trace gases transport, FIS/06
Related Organizations
32 references, page 1 of 3

3 How to improve the model scores? A simple data assimilation approach 31 3.1 Observations used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 3.2 The BOLAM model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.3 Description of the MCS event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.4 Nudging procedure and simulation set-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.4.1 Sensitivity tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.5 Comparison of simulated MCS lifecycle with observations . . . . . . 43 3.5.1 Cloud top brightness temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3.5.2 Rainfall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.6 Nudging impact on model dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

4 The AMMA field campaign 61 4.1 Description of the AMMA field campaign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

5 Impact of deep convection in the tropical tropopause layer in West Africa 87 5.1 Mesoscale simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 5.1.1 Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 5.1.2 Trajectories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 5.2 Convective outflow from BOLAM trajectories . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 5.3 Comparison with observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

6 Transport of biomass burning emissions 105 6.1 Observational evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 6.2 Model description and simulation set up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 6.3 Biomass burning transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Adeyewa, Z. D. and K. Nakamura, 2003: Validation of trmm radar rainfall data over major climatic regions in africa. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 42.

Agusti-Panareda, A., A. Beljaars, I. Genkova, C. Cardinali, and C. Thorncroft, 2009: Impact of assimilating amma soundings on ecmwf analyses and forecasts, Tech. rep., ECMWF Technical Memorandum. [OpenAIRE]

Ali, A. and T. Lebel, 2009: The Sahelian standardized rainfall index revisited. International Journal of Climatology, 29, 1705-1714.

Ancellet, G., J. Leclair de Bellevue, C. Mari, P. Nedelec, A. Kukui, A. Borbon, and P. Perros, 2009: Effects of regional-scale and convective transports on tropospheric ozone chemistry revealed by aircraft observations during the wet season of the AMMA campaign. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 9, 383-411. [OpenAIRE]

Andreae, M., A. Chapuis, B. Cros, J. Fontan, G. Helas, C. Justice, Y. Kaufman, A. Minga, and D. Nganga, 1992: Ozone and Aitken nuclei over equatorial Africa: Airborne observations during DECAFE 88. Journal of Geophysical ResearchAtmospheres, 97. [OpenAIRE]

Andr´es-Hern´andez, M. D., D. Kartal, L. Reichert, J. P. Burrows, J. Meyer Arnek, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, and H. Schlager, 2009: Peroxy radical observations over west africa during amma 2006: photochemical activity in the outflow of convective systems. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9, 3681-3695.

Borrmann, S., D. Kunkel, R. Weigel, A. Minikin, T. Deshler, J. C. Wilson, J. Curtius, G. N. Shur, G. V. Belyaev, K. S. Law, and F. Cairo, 2009: Aerosols in the tropical and subtropical ut/ls: in-situ measurements of submicron particle abundance and volatility. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 9, 24587-24628.

Boulain, N., B. Cappelaere, D. Ramier, H. Issoufou, O. Halilou, J. Seghieri, F. Guillemin, M. O ”ı, J. Gignoux, and F. Timouk, 2009: Towards an understanding of coupled physical and biological processes in the cultivated Sahel-2. Vegetation and carbon dynamics. Journal of Hydrology, 375, 190-203.

Cairo, F., G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, L. Pulvirenti, and F. Fierli, 1999: Comparison of various linear depolarization parameters measured by lidar. Appl. Opt, 38, 4425-4432. [OpenAIRE]

Cairo, F., J. P. Pommereau, K. S. Law, H. Schlager, A. Garnier, F. Fierli, M. Ern, M. Streibel, S. Arabas, S. Borrmann, J. J. Berthelier, C. Blom, T. Christensen, F. D'Amato, G. Di Donfrancesco, T. Deshler, A. Diedhiou, G. Durry, O. Engelsen, F. Goutail, N. R. P. Harris, E. R. T. Kerstel, S. Khaykin, P. Konopka, A. Kylling, N. Larsen, T. Lebel, X. Liu, A. R. MacKenzie, J. Nielsen, A. Oulanowski, D. J. Parker, J. Pelon, J. Polcher, J. A. Pyle, F. Ravegnani, E. D. Rivi`ere, A. D. Robinson, T. R¨ockmann, C. Schiller, F. Simo˜es, L. Stefanutti, F. Stroh, L. Some, P. Siegmund, N. Sitnikov, J. P. Vernier, C. M. Volk, C. Voigt, M. von Hobe, S. Viciani, and V. Yushkov, 2009: An overview of the scoutamma stratospheric aircraft, balloons and sondes campaign in west africa, august 2006: rationale, roadmap and highlights. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 9, 19713-19781. [OpenAIRE]

Capes, G., J. G. Murphy, C. E. Reeves, J. B. McQuaid, J. F. Hamilton, J. R. Hopkins, J. Crosier, P. I. Williams, and H. Coe, 2009: Secondary organic aerosol Dinku, T., P. Ceccato, E. Grover-Kopec, S. Connor, and C. Ropelewski, 2006: Validation and inter-comparison of satellite rainfall products over east africas complex topography. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 28, 1503-1526.

Diongue, A., J. Lafore, J. Redelsperger, and R. Roca, 2002: Numerical study of a sahelian synoptic weather system: Initiation and mature stages of convection and its interactions with the large-scale dynamics. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 128. [OpenAIRE]

32 references, page 1 of 3
Abstract
The improvement of knowledge and understanding of the West African Monsoon (WAM) is a fundamental scientific issue with implications on economy, health, water resources and food security in West African countries. In a region where agriculture is mainly rain fed, a delay in the rainy season onset or a dry year could compromise food and water security and lead to dearth conditions. The natural interannual and interseasonal variability of the WAM and the dramatic change from wet conditions (1950s-1960s) to much drier ones (1960s-today) over West Africa represents one of the world strongest variation in the 20th century. Mesoscale convective systems (MCS) are respo...
Subjects
free text keywords: FIS/06 Fisica per il sistema terra e il mezzo circumterrestre, fuochi di biomassa, in traccia, modelli meteorologici, monsone africano, precipitazione, trasporto di gas, convezione, African monsons, convection, meteorological models, precipitation, trace gases transport, FIS/06
Related Organizations
32 references, page 1 of 3

3 How to improve the model scores? A simple data assimilation approach 31 3.1 Observations used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 3.2 The BOLAM model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.3 Description of the MCS event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.4 Nudging procedure and simulation set-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.4.1 Sensitivity tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.5 Comparison of simulated MCS lifecycle with observations . . . . . . 43 3.5.1 Cloud top brightness temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3.5.2 Rainfall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.6 Nudging impact on model dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

4 The AMMA field campaign 61 4.1 Description of the AMMA field campaign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

5 Impact of deep convection in the tropical tropopause layer in West Africa 87 5.1 Mesoscale simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 5.1.1 Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 5.1.2 Trajectories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 5.2 Convective outflow from BOLAM trajectories . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 5.3 Comparison with observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

6 Transport of biomass burning emissions 105 6.1 Observational evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 6.2 Model description and simulation set up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 6.3 Biomass burning transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Adeyewa, Z. D. and K. Nakamura, 2003: Validation of trmm radar rainfall data over major climatic regions in africa. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 42.

Agusti-Panareda, A., A. Beljaars, I. Genkova, C. Cardinali, and C. Thorncroft, 2009: Impact of assimilating amma soundings on ecmwf analyses and forecasts, Tech. rep., ECMWF Technical Memorandum. [OpenAIRE]

Ali, A. and T. Lebel, 2009: The Sahelian standardized rainfall index revisited. International Journal of Climatology, 29, 1705-1714.

Ancellet, G., J. Leclair de Bellevue, C. Mari, P. Nedelec, A. Kukui, A. Borbon, and P. Perros, 2009: Effects of regional-scale and convective transports on tropospheric ozone chemistry revealed by aircraft observations during the wet season of the AMMA campaign. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 9, 383-411. [OpenAIRE]

Andreae, M., A. Chapuis, B. Cros, J. Fontan, G. Helas, C. Justice, Y. Kaufman, A. Minga, and D. Nganga, 1992: Ozone and Aitken nuclei over equatorial Africa: Airborne observations during DECAFE 88. Journal of Geophysical ResearchAtmospheres, 97. [OpenAIRE]

Andr´es-Hern´andez, M. D., D. Kartal, L. Reichert, J. P. Burrows, J. Meyer Arnek, M. Lichtenstern, P. Stock, and H. Schlager, 2009: Peroxy radical observations over west africa during amma 2006: photochemical activity in the outflow of convective systems. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9, 3681-3695.

Borrmann, S., D. Kunkel, R. Weigel, A. Minikin, T. Deshler, J. C. Wilson, J. Curtius, G. N. Shur, G. V. Belyaev, K. S. Law, and F. Cairo, 2009: Aerosols in the tropical and subtropical ut/ls: in-situ measurements of submicron particle abundance and volatility. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 9, 24587-24628.

Boulain, N., B. Cappelaere, D. Ramier, H. Issoufou, O. Halilou, J. Seghieri, F. Guillemin, M. O ”ı, J. Gignoux, and F. Timouk, 2009: Towards an understanding of coupled physical and biological processes in the cultivated Sahel-2. Vegetation and carbon dynamics. Journal of Hydrology, 375, 190-203.

Cairo, F., G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, L. Pulvirenti, and F. Fierli, 1999: Comparison of various linear depolarization parameters measured by lidar. Appl. Opt, 38, 4425-4432. [OpenAIRE]

Cairo, F., J. P. Pommereau, K. S. Law, H. Schlager, A. Garnier, F. Fierli, M. Ern, M. Streibel, S. Arabas, S. Borrmann, J. J. Berthelier, C. Blom, T. Christensen, F. D'Amato, G. Di Donfrancesco, T. Deshler, A. Diedhiou, G. Durry, O. Engelsen, F. Goutail, N. R. P. Harris, E. R. T. Kerstel, S. Khaykin, P. Konopka, A. Kylling, N. Larsen, T. Lebel, X. Liu, A. R. MacKenzie, J. Nielsen, A. Oulanowski, D. J. Parker, J. Pelon, J. Polcher, J. A. Pyle, F. Ravegnani, E. D. Rivi`ere, A. D. Robinson, T. R¨ockmann, C. Schiller, F. Simo˜es, L. Stefanutti, F. Stroh, L. Some, P. Siegmund, N. Sitnikov, J. P. Vernier, C. M. Volk, C. Voigt, M. von Hobe, S. Viciani, and V. Yushkov, 2009: An overview of the scoutamma stratospheric aircraft, balloons and sondes campaign in west africa, august 2006: rationale, roadmap and highlights. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 9, 19713-19781. [OpenAIRE]

Capes, G., J. G. Murphy, C. E. Reeves, J. B. McQuaid, J. F. Hamilton, J. R. Hopkins, J. Crosier, P. I. Williams, and H. Coe, 2009: Secondary organic aerosol Dinku, T., P. Ceccato, E. Grover-Kopec, S. Connor, and C. Ropelewski, 2006: Validation and inter-comparison of satellite rainfall products over east africas complex topography. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 28, 1503-1526.

Diongue, A., J. Lafore, J. Redelsperger, and R. Roca, 2002: Numerical study of a sahelian synoptic weather system: Initiation and mature stages of convection and its interactions with the large-scale dynamics. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 128. [OpenAIRE]

32 references, page 1 of 3
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publication . Doctoral thesis . 2010

Studio della convezione durante il monsone africano: osservazioni e modellazione della precipitazione e del ruolo della circolazione regionale sulla composizione atmosferica

Orlandi, Emiliano;