publication . Article . 2017

Efficacy of scalp hair decontamination following exposure to vapours of sulphur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide and methyl salicylate

Marie Spiandore; Anne Piram; Alexandre Lacoste; Philippe Prevost; Pascal Maloni; Franck Torre; Laurence Asia; Denis Josse; Pierre Doumenq;
Open Access English
  • Published: 01 Jan 2017
  • Publisher: HAL CCSD
Abstract
International audience; Chemical warfare agents are an actual threat and victims' decontamination is a main concern when mass exposure occurs. Skin decontamination with current protocols has been widely documented, as well as surface decontamination. However, considering hair ability to trap chemicals in vapour phase, we investigated hair decontamination after exposure to sulphur mustard simulants methyl salicylate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide. Four decontamination protocols were tested on hair, combining showering and emergency decontamination (use of Fuller's earth or Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion RSDL ®). Both simulants were recovered from hair aft...
Subjects
Medical Subject Headings: integumentary system
free text keywords: Showering, CWA, Decontamination, HD, Hair exposure, [CHIM.OTHE]Chemical Sciences/Other, [SDE]Environmental Sciences, [ SDE.BE ] Environmental Sciences/Biodiversity and Ecology, Chemistry, Vapours, medicine.disease, medicine, Sulfur, chemistry.chemical_element, Methyl salicylate, chemistry.chemical_compound, Human decontamination, Environmental chemistry, Chemical exposure, Lotion
35 references, page 1 of 3

[1] OPCW, Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, 2005 (accessed 15.10.2015), http://www.opcw.org/index.php?eID¼dam_frontend_ push&docID¼6357.

[2] United Nations, United Nations Mission to Investigate Allegations of the Use of Chemical Weapons in the Syrian Arab Republic, Final Report, 2013 (accessed 15.10.2015), https://unoda-web.s3.amazonaws.com/wp-content/uploads/ 2013/12/report.pdf.

[3] R.P. Chilcott, J. Jenner, W. Carrick, S.A.M. Hotchkiss, P. Rice, Human skin absorption of bis-2-(chloroethyl)sulphide (sulphur mustard) in vitro, J. Appl. Toxicol. 20 (2000) 349e355, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1099-1263(200009/ 10)20:5<349::AID-JAT713>3.0.CO;2-O. [OpenAIRE]

[4] P.V. Lakshmana Rao, R. Vijayaraghavan, A.S.B. Bhaskar, Sulphur mustard induced DNA damage in mice after dermal and inhalation exposure, Toxicology 139 (1999) 39e51, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0300-483X(99)00097-9.

[5] M.P. Shakarjian, D.E. Heck, J.P. Gray, P.J. Sinko, M.K. Gordon, R.P. Casillas, et al., Mechanisms mediating the vesicant actions of sulfur mustard after cutaneous exposure, Toxicol. Sci. 114 (2010) 5e19, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/ kfp253.

[6] US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Toxicological profile for sulphur mustard (HD), 2003 (accessed 4.12.2015), http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/ toxprofiles/tp.asp?id¼905&tid¼184.

[7] P. Rolland, M.-A. Bolzinger, C. Cruz, D. Josse, S. Briançon, Hairy skin exposure to VX in vitro: effectiveness of delayed decontamination, Toxicol. In Vitro 27 (2013) 358e366, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2012.08.014. [OpenAIRE]

[8] A.H. Hall, H.I. Maibach, Water decontamination of chemical skin/eye splashes: a critical review, Cutan. Ocul. Toxicol. 25 (2006) 67e83, http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1080/15569520600695520.

[9] SGDN, Circulaire n 700/SGDN/PSE/PPS du 7 novembre 2008 relative a la doctrine nationale d'emploi des moyens de secours et de soins face a une action terroriste mettant en oeuvre des matieres chimiques, 2008 (accessed 15.10.2015), http://circulaire.legifrance.gouv.fr/pdf/2009/04/cir_1349.pdf.

[10] L. Taysse, S. Daulon, S. Delamanche, B. Bellier, P. Breton, Skin decontamination of mustards and organophosphates: comparative efficiency of RSDL and Fuller's earth in domestic swine, Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 26 (2007) 135e141, http:// dx.doi.org/10.1177/0960327107071866. [OpenAIRE]

[11] U. Wormser, B. Brodsky, A. Sintov, Skin toxicokinetics of mustard gas in the Guinea pig: effect of hypochlorite and safety aspects, Arch. Toxicol. 76 (2002) 517e522, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-002-0362-6. [OpenAIRE]

[12] F. Dorandeu, L. Taysse, I. Boudry, A. Foquin, F. Herodin, J. Mathieu, et al., Cutaneous challenge with chemical warfare agents in the SKH-1 hairless mouse. (I) Development of a model for screening studies in skin decontamination and protection, Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 30 (2011) 470e490, http:// dx.doi.org/10.1177/0960327110373615.

[13] J. Misík, R. Pavlikova, K. Kuca, Percutaneous toxicity and decontamination of soman, Vx, and paraoxon in rats using detergents, Arch. Ind. Hyg. Toxicol. 64 (2013) 211e217, http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/10004-1254-64-2013-2290.

[14] H. Matar, A. Guerreiro, S.A. Piletsky, S.C. Price, R.P. Chilcott, Preliminary evaluation of military, commercial and novel skin decontamination products against a chemical warfare agent simulant (methyl salicylate), Cutan. Ocul. Toxicol. (2015) 1e8, http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15569527.2015.1072544.

[15] J.-H. Sun, P.-P. Sun, W. Zheng, S. Han, Y. Ying, H.-Y. Liu, et al., Skin decontamination efficacy of potassium ketoxime on rabbits exposed to sulfur mustard, Cutan. Ocul. Toxicol. 34 (2015) 1e6, http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/ 15569527.2014.880454.

35 references, page 1 of 3
Abstract
International audience; Chemical warfare agents are an actual threat and victims' decontamination is a main concern when mass exposure occurs. Skin decontamination with current protocols has been widely documented, as well as surface decontamination. However, considering hair ability to trap chemicals in vapour phase, we investigated hair decontamination after exposure to sulphur mustard simulants methyl salicylate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide. Four decontamination protocols were tested on hair, combining showering and emergency decontamination (use of Fuller's earth or Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion RSDL ®). Both simulants were recovered from hair aft...
Subjects
Medical Subject Headings: integumentary system
free text keywords: Showering, CWA, Decontamination, HD, Hair exposure, [CHIM.OTHE]Chemical Sciences/Other, [SDE]Environmental Sciences, [ SDE.BE ] Environmental Sciences/Biodiversity and Ecology, Chemistry, Vapours, medicine.disease, medicine, Sulfur, chemistry.chemical_element, Methyl salicylate, chemistry.chemical_compound, Human decontamination, Environmental chemistry, Chemical exposure, Lotion
35 references, page 1 of 3

[1] OPCW, Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, 2005 (accessed 15.10.2015), http://www.opcw.org/index.php?eID¼dam_frontend_ push&docID¼6357.

[2] United Nations, United Nations Mission to Investigate Allegations of the Use of Chemical Weapons in the Syrian Arab Republic, Final Report, 2013 (accessed 15.10.2015), https://unoda-web.s3.amazonaws.com/wp-content/uploads/ 2013/12/report.pdf.

[3] R.P. Chilcott, J. Jenner, W. Carrick, S.A.M. Hotchkiss, P. Rice, Human skin absorption of bis-2-(chloroethyl)sulphide (sulphur mustard) in vitro, J. Appl. Toxicol. 20 (2000) 349e355, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1099-1263(200009/ 10)20:5<349::AID-JAT713>3.0.CO;2-O. [OpenAIRE]

[4] P.V. Lakshmana Rao, R. Vijayaraghavan, A.S.B. Bhaskar, Sulphur mustard induced DNA damage in mice after dermal and inhalation exposure, Toxicology 139 (1999) 39e51, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0300-483X(99)00097-9.

[5] M.P. Shakarjian, D.E. Heck, J.P. Gray, P.J. Sinko, M.K. Gordon, R.P. Casillas, et al., Mechanisms mediating the vesicant actions of sulfur mustard after cutaneous exposure, Toxicol. Sci. 114 (2010) 5e19, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/ kfp253.

[6] US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Toxicological profile for sulphur mustard (HD), 2003 (accessed 4.12.2015), http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/ toxprofiles/tp.asp?id¼905&tid¼184.

[7] P. Rolland, M.-A. Bolzinger, C. Cruz, D. Josse, S. Briançon, Hairy skin exposure to VX in vitro: effectiveness of delayed decontamination, Toxicol. In Vitro 27 (2013) 358e366, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2012.08.014. [OpenAIRE]

[8] A.H. Hall, H.I. Maibach, Water decontamination of chemical skin/eye splashes: a critical review, Cutan. Ocul. Toxicol. 25 (2006) 67e83, http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1080/15569520600695520.

[9] SGDN, Circulaire n 700/SGDN/PSE/PPS du 7 novembre 2008 relative a la doctrine nationale d'emploi des moyens de secours et de soins face a une action terroriste mettant en oeuvre des matieres chimiques, 2008 (accessed 15.10.2015), http://circulaire.legifrance.gouv.fr/pdf/2009/04/cir_1349.pdf.

[10] L. Taysse, S. Daulon, S. Delamanche, B. Bellier, P. Breton, Skin decontamination of mustards and organophosphates: comparative efficiency of RSDL and Fuller's earth in domestic swine, Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 26 (2007) 135e141, http:// dx.doi.org/10.1177/0960327107071866. [OpenAIRE]

[11] U. Wormser, B. Brodsky, A. Sintov, Skin toxicokinetics of mustard gas in the Guinea pig: effect of hypochlorite and safety aspects, Arch. Toxicol. 76 (2002) 517e522, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-002-0362-6. [OpenAIRE]

[12] F. Dorandeu, L. Taysse, I. Boudry, A. Foquin, F. Herodin, J. Mathieu, et al., Cutaneous challenge with chemical warfare agents in the SKH-1 hairless mouse. (I) Development of a model for screening studies in skin decontamination and protection, Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 30 (2011) 470e490, http:// dx.doi.org/10.1177/0960327110373615.

[13] J. Misík, R. Pavlikova, K. Kuca, Percutaneous toxicity and decontamination of soman, Vx, and paraoxon in rats using detergents, Arch. Ind. Hyg. Toxicol. 64 (2013) 211e217, http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/10004-1254-64-2013-2290.

[14] H. Matar, A. Guerreiro, S.A. Piletsky, S.C. Price, R.P. Chilcott, Preliminary evaluation of military, commercial and novel skin decontamination products against a chemical warfare agent simulant (methyl salicylate), Cutan. Ocul. Toxicol. (2015) 1e8, http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15569527.2015.1072544.

[15] J.-H. Sun, P.-P. Sun, W. Zheng, S. Han, Y. Ying, H.-Y. Liu, et al., Skin decontamination efficacy of potassium ketoxime on rabbits exposed to sulfur mustard, Cutan. Ocul. Toxicol. 34 (2015) 1e6, http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/ 15569527.2014.880454.

35 references, page 1 of 3
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publication . Article . 2017

Efficacy of scalp hair decontamination following exposure to vapours of sulphur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide and methyl salicylate

Marie Spiandore; Anne Piram; Alexandre Lacoste; Philippe Prevost; Pascal Maloni; Franck Torre; Laurence Asia; Denis Josse; Pierre Doumenq;