Quantifying displaced carbon dioxide emissions from electric vehicles in Ireland
Foley, Aoife M.
Leahy, Paul G.
McKeogh, Eamon J.
Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.
- Publisher: Irish Transport Research Network
Modelling | Smarter travel | Gaseous emissions | Power system | Electric automobiles | Transportation--Environmental aspects | Greenhouse gas mitigation--Ireland | Power resources | Electric vehicles
Under EU Directive 2009/28/EC on Renewable Energy each Member State is mandated to ensure that 10%
of transport energy (excluding aviation and marine transport) comes from renewable sources by 2020. The
Irish Government intends to achieve this target with a number of policies including an increase in the use of
biofuels in transport by 3% by 2010 and ensuring that 10% of all vehicles in the transport fleet are powered
by electricity by 2020. Electric vehicles (EVs) do not emit exhaust fumes in the same manner as traditional
internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. The optimal benefits of EVs can only be truly achieved if EVs
are deployed effectively, so that exhaust pipe gaseous emissions are not fully displaced to the electricity
sector. This paper examines the potential contributions that Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicles can make in
reducing carbon dioxide. The paper presents the results of the generation expansion model for Northern
Ireland and the Republic of Ireland built using the dynamic programming based long term generation
expansion planning tool called the Wien Automatic System Planning IV tool. The model optimizes power
dispatch using hourly electricity demand curves for each year up to 2020, while incorporating generator
characteristics and certain operational requirements such as energy not served and loss of load probability
while satisfying constraints on environmental emissions, fuel availability and generator operational and
maintenance costs. In order to simulate the effect of PHEV, two distinct charging scenarios are applied
based on a peak tariff and an off peak tariff. The importance and influence of the charging regime on the
amount of energy used and gaseous emissions displaced is determined and briefly discussed.