Relationship between self-efficacy, self-care behaviour and glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Malaysian primary care setting

Article, Other literature type English OPEN
Tharek, Zahirah ; Ramli, Anis Safura ; Whitford, David Leonard ; Ismail, Zaliha ; Mohd Zulkifli, Maryam ; Ahmad Sharoni, Siti Khuzaimah ; Shafie, Asrul Akmal ; Jayaraman, Thevaraajan (2018)
  • Publisher: BioMed Central
  • Journal: BMC Family Practice, volume 19 (eissn: 1471-2296)
  • Related identifiers: pmc: PMC5845324, doi: 10.1186/s12875-018-0725-6
  • Subject: Research Article | Self-care behaviour | Self-efficacy | Type 2 diabetes mellitus. | Type 2 diabetes mellitus | Primary care | Medicine and Health Sciences | Malaysia

Background Self-efficacy has been shown to be positively correlated with self-care behaviour and glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, such evidence is lacking in the Malaysian primary care setting. The objectives of this study were to i) determine the levels of self-efficacy, self-care behaviour and glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Malaysian primary care setting ii) determine the relationship between self-efficacy, self-care behaviour and glycaemic control iii) determine the factors associated with glycaemic control. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from two public primary care clinics in Malaysia. Self-efficacy and self-care behaviour levels were measured using previously translated and validated DMSES and SDSCA questionnaires in Malay versions, respectively. Glycaemic control was measured using HbA1c. Results A total of 340 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited. The total mean (±SD) of self-efficacy and self-care behaviour scores were 7.33 (±2.25) and 3.76 (±1.87), respectively. A positive relationship was found between self-efficacy and self-care behaviour (r 0.538, P < 0.001). Higher self-efficacy score was shown to be correlated with lower HbA1c (r − 0.41, P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that higher self-efficacy scores (b − 0.398; 95% CI: -0.024, − 0.014; P < 0.001), shorter duration of diabetes (b 0.177; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.007; P < 0.001) and smaller waist circumference (b 0.135; 95% CI: 0.006, 0.035; P = 0.006), were significantly associated with good glycaemic control. Conclusion This study demonstrated that higher self-efficacy was correlated with improved self-care behaviour and better glycaemic control. Findings of this study suggest the importance of including routine use of self-efficacy measures in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in primary care. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12875-018-0725-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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