Phthalocyanine-nanocarbon ensembles: From discrete molecular and supramolecular systems to hybrid nanomaterials

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Bottari, Giovanni ; De La Torre, Gema ; Torres, Tomas (2015)

This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Accounts of Chemical Research, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see Conspectus Phthalocyanines (Pcs) are macrocyclic and aromatic compounds that present unique electronic features such as high molar absorption coefficients, rich redox chemistry, and photoinduced energy/electron transfer abilities that can be modulated as a function of the electronic character of their counterparts in donor-acceptor (D-A) ensembles. In this context, carbon nanostructures such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and, more recently, graphene are among the most suitable Pc companions. Pc-C60 ensembles have been for a long time the main actors in this field, due to the commercial availability of C60 and the ell-established synthetic methods for its functionalization. As a result, many Pc-C60 architectures have been prepared, featuring different connectivities (covalent or supramolecular), intermolecular interactions (self-organized or molecularly dispersed species), and Pc HOMO/LUMO levels. All these elements provide a versatile toolbox for tuning the photophysical properties in terms of the type of process (photoinduced energy/electron transfer), the nature of the interactions beteen the electroactive units (through bond or space), and the kinetics of the formation/decay of the photogenerated species. Some recent trends in this field include the preparation of stimuli-responsive multicomponent systems ith tunable photophysical properties and highly ordered nanoarchitectures and surface-supported systems shoing high charge mobilities. A breakthrough in the Pc-nanocarbon field as the appearance of CNTs and graphene, hich opened a ne avenue for the preparation of intriguing photoresponsive hybrid ensembles shoing light-stimulated charge separation. The scarce solubility of these 1-D and 2-D nanocarbons, together ith their loer reactivity ith respect to C60 stemming from their less strained sp2 carbon netorks, has not meant an unsurmountable limitation for the preparation of variety of Pc-based hybrids. These systems, hich sho improved solubility and dispersibility features, bring together the unique electronic transport properties of CNTs and graphene ith the excellent light-harvesting and tunable redox properties of Pcs. A singular and distinctive feature of these Pc-CNT/graphene (single- or fe-layers) hybrid materials is the control of the direction of the photoinduced charge transfer as a result of the band-like electronic structure of these carbon nanoforms and the adjustable electronic levels of Pcs. Moreover, these conjugates present intensified light-harvesting capabilities resulting from the grafting of several chromophores on the same nanocarbon platform.In this Account, recent progress in the construction of covalent and supramolecular Pc-nanocarbon ensembles is summarized, ith a particular emphasis on their photoinduced behavior. e believe that the high degree of control achieved in the preparation of Pc-carbon nanostructures, together ith the increasing knoledge of the factors governing their photophysics, ill allo for the design of next-generation light-fueled electroactive systems. Possible implementation of these Pc-nanocarbons in high performance devices is envisioned, finally turning into reality much of the expectations generated by these materials Financial support from the Spanish MICINN (CTQ2011-24187/BQU), the Comunidad de Madrid (S2013/MIT-2841 FOTOCARBON) and the EU (“SO2S” FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN, no.: 316975) is acknowledged
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