Phthalocyanine-nanocarbon ensembles: From discrete molecular and supramolecular systems to hybrid nanomaterials

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Bottari, Giovanni ; De La Torre, Gema ; Torres, Tomas (2015)

This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Accounts of Chemical Research, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ar5004384 Conspectus Phthalocyanines (Pcs) are macrocyclic and aromatic compounds that present unique electronic features such as high molar absorption coefficients, rich redox chemistry, and photoinduced energy/electron transfer abilities that can be modulated as a function of the electronic character of their counterparts in donor-acceptor (D-A) ensembles. In this context, carbon nanostructures such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and, more recently, graphene are among the most suitable Pc companions. Pc-C60 ensembles have been for a long time the main actors in this field, due to the commercial availability of C60 and the ell-established synthetic methods for its functionalization. As a result, many Pc-C60 architectures have been prepared, featuring different connectivities (covalent or supramolecular), intermolecular interactions (self-organized or molecularly dispersed species), and Pc HOMO/LUMO levels. All these elements provide a versatile toolbox for tuning the photophysical properties in terms of the type of process (photoinduced energy/electron transfer), the nature of the interactions beteen the electroactive units (through bond or space), and the kinetics of the formation/decay of the photogenerated species. Some recent trends in this field include the preparation of stimuli-responsive multicomponent systems ith tunable photophysical properties and highly ordered nanoarchitectures and surface-supported systems shoing high charge mobilities. A breakthrough in the Pc-nanocarbon field as the appearance of CNTs and graphene, hich opened a ne avenue for the preparation of intriguing photoresponsive hybrid ensembles shoing light-stimulated charge separation. The scarce solubility of these 1-D and 2-D nanocarbons, together ith their loer reactivity ith respect to C60 stemming from their less strained sp2 carbon netorks, has not meant an unsurmountable limitation for the preparation of variety of Pc-based hybrids. These systems, hich sho improved solubility and dispersibility features, bring together the unique electronic transport properties of CNTs and graphene ith the excellent light-harvesting and tunable redox properties of Pcs. A singular and distinctive feature of these Pc-CNT/graphene (single- or fe-layers) hybrid materials is the control of the direction of the photoinduced charge transfer as a result of the band-like electronic structure of these carbon nanoforms and the adjustable electronic levels of Pcs. Moreover, these conjugates present intensified light-harvesting capabilities resulting from the grafting of several chromophores on the same nanocarbon platform.In this Account, recent progress in the construction of covalent and supramolecular Pc-nanocarbon ensembles is summarized, ith a particular emphasis on their photoinduced behavior. e believe that the high degree of control achieved in the preparation of Pc-carbon nanostructures, together ith the increasing knoledge of the factors governing their photophysics, ill allo for the design of next-generation light-fueled electroactive systems. Possible implementation of these Pc-nanocarbons in high performance devices is envisioned, finally turning into reality much of the expectations generated by these materials Financial support from the Spanish MICINN (CTQ2011-24187/BQU), the Comunidad de Madrid (S2013/MIT-2841 FOTOCARBON) and the EU (“SO2S” FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN, no.: 316975) is acknowledged
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