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Ar tarptautinė paprotinė teisė įtvirtina įsipareigojimą erga omnes vykdyti baudžiamąjį persekiojimą dėl sunkių žmogaus teisių pažeidimų?

Authors: Šaltinytė, Loreta;

Ar tarptautinė paprotinė teisė įtvirtina įsipareigojimą erga omnes vykdyti baudžiamąjį persekiojimą dėl sunkių žmogaus teisių pažeidimų?

Abstract

Ius cogens normos ir erga omnes įsipareigojimai yra dvi esminės sąvokos, skiriančios šiuolaikinę tarptautinę teisę nuo klasikinės. Vis dėlto kuo šios sąvokos skiriasi ir kokie yra jų pažeidimo teisiniai padariniai – iki šiol neišspręsta problema. Straipsnyje nagrinėjamas valstybių įsipareigojimo vykdyti baudžiamąjį persekiojimą dėl kankinimų teisinis statusas tarptautinėje teisėje. Mokslo darbuose ir teismų sprendimuose kankinimų draudimas visuotinai pripažįstamas kaip ius cogens normos pavyzdys. Tačiau nesutariama dėl to, ar valstybės turi tarptautinę teisinę pareigą vykdyti baudžiamąjį persekiojimą dėl asmenų, padariusių sunkius žmogaus teisių pažeidimus. Straipsnyje ginčijama, kad šis valstybių įsipareigojimas yra tarptautinės paprotinės teisės dalis. Šis įsipareigojimas išplaukia iš paties sunkių žmogaus teisių pažeidimo erga omnes pobūdžio. Ši išvada daroma apžvelgus arbitražų sprendimus dėl šio įsipareigojimo klasikinėje teisėje, išanalizavus šio įsipareigojimo reglamentavimą pagrindinėse tarptautinėse sutartyse, žmogaus teisių apsaugos institucijų praktiką, reikalaujant bausti žmogaus teises pažeidusius asmenis, bei galiausiai Tarptautinio Teisingumo Teismo sprendimus Barcelona Traction (1970 m.) ir Genocido (1996 m.) bylose. In this article, the author aims to suggest legal guidelines enabling a well argued answer that the obligation to prosecute for grave violations of human rights is a part of customary international law of an erga omnes nature. In the first part of the article the decisions of international arbitral tribunals are analysed. In the second part the Genocide convention, Geneva conventions for the protection of the victims of war, Convention against torture all of which provide for an obligation of States to prosecute are analysed. The third part considers the decisions of the UN Human rights Committee, European Court of Human Rights and the American Court of Human Rights concerning the obligation to prosecute. In their practice all of 127 these institutions acknowledge that States are subject to this obligation. This finds an especially clear expression with respect to the prohibition of torture. The article seeks to demonstrate that the most proper legal basis for this obligation would be the obligation to respect and ensure respect to the rights included in the respectful international agreements. It is alleged that separation of an obligation to respect rights from an obligation to ensure rights is artificial and that it should be read uniformly, without making a distinction between ‚respect“ and ‚ensure respect“. In the final part of the article the question whether an obligation to prosecute is of an erga omnes character is considered. The major ICJ case referred to is the... [to full text]

Country
Lithuania
Related Organizations
Keywords

Customary law, international, Paprotinė teisė, tarptautinė, Budžiamasis procesas (tarptautinė teisė), Human rights, Žmogaus teisės, Criminal procedure (international law)

39 references, page 1 of 4

1993 m. geguþës 20 d. Bosnija ir Hercegovina pradëjo procesà Tarptautiniame Teisingumo

Teisme prieð Jugoslavijà dël Genocido konvencijos paþeidimø [10]. Savo sprendime dël preliminariø

prieðtaravimø Teismas paskelbë, kad: 1. Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Company, Limited (Belgium v. Spain) Second Phase, Judgment of 5

February 1970. 2. South West Africa (Ethiopia v. South Africa; Liberia v. South Africa) (1960-1966) Judgment of 18 July 1966. 3. Nuclear Tests (Australia and New Zealand v. France). Judgment, ICJ Reports, 1974. 4. Ragazzi M. The Concept of Obligations Erga Omnes. - Oxford: 1997. 5. de Hoogh A. Obligations Erga Omnes and International Crimes. A Theoretical Inquiry into the Implementa-

tion and Enforcement of the International Responsibility of States. - Kluwer: 1997. 6. Byers M. Conceptualizing the Relationship Between Ius Cogens and Erga Omnes Rules. Nordic JIL 66 1997. 7. UN GA resolution 56/83 Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts; Articles on State

responsibility. 8. Cherif-Bassiouni M. Combating Impunity for International Crimes. 71 U. Colo. L. Rev. 409. 9. Cherif Bassiouni M. International Crimes: Jus Cogens and Obligation Erga Omnes. 59 Law & Contemp.

probs. 4, 63. 1996. 10. Case Concerning Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide,

Preliminary Objections, I.C.J. Reports 1996. [genocido byla].

a) Teisėjo Odos atskiroji nuomonė, I.C.J. Reports 1996.

b) Teisėjo ad hoc Kreca atskiroji nuomonė, I. C. J. Reports 1996. 11. Yates, State Responsibility for non-wealth Injuries to Aliens in the Postwar Era, in International Law of State

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citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
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