Comparative analysis of minor bioactive constituents (CoQ10, tocopherols and phenolic compounds) in Arbequina extra virgin olive oils from Brazil and Spain
Borges, Thays H.
López, Luis Carlos
Arbequina | Chemometric analysis | Coenzyme Q10 | Food analysis | Food composition | Polyphenols | Tocopherols | Virgin olive oil
There is currently an emerging production of olive oil in Brazil but it is still poorly characterized. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of minor bioactive constituents (CoQ 10 tocopherols and phenolic compounds) in extra virgin olive oil from different regions of Brazil and Spain, of Arbequina cultivar. Significant variations (P < 0.05) in the concentration of the compounds analyzed were observed among oils from the different growing areas, not only between Spanish and Brazilian samples but also within zones of the same country. All the oils analyzed showed a high content of CoQ 10 , which ranged from 48 to 85 mg/L. The α − tocopherol was the major isomer quantified and three main groups of phenolic compounds were identified: flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin), phenolic acids (naringenin, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid) and phenolic alcohols (hydroxytyrosol). Climatic and geographic factors of the production zones greatly influenced the minor fraction composition; positive relationships between altitude and the level of CoQ 10 , tocopherols and phenolic compounds of the oils were observed, whereas a negative correlation with rainfalls was found. Chemometric analyses demonstrated that oils were differentiated by the chemical composition and origin area and that polyphenols (particularly hydroxytyrosol) held the major weight in the oil classification.
We are grateful to the CAPES Foundation, (Ministry of Education) Brazil, for scholarship support provided to the first author. LCL is supported by the “Ramón y Cajal” National Programme (RYC-2011- 07643) and the grants SAF2013-47761-R and SAF2015-65786-R, Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, Spain, and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). This work is part of the doctoral thesis of Thays Helena Borges, Ph.D. student from the Official Doctoral Program “Nutrition and Food Sciences” of the Granada University. The authors also would like to thank Consejo Regulador de Denominación de Origen (DOP) Estepa and DOP Les Garrigues; Casas Hualdo, Castillo Canena, Cortijo de Jara, Quaryat Dilar and Olivas do Sul for the donation of samples. We would like to dedicate to the memory of Carmen Cabrera-Vique.