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Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Conference object . 2011

Designing Shotcrete As Primary Support in Tunnels

Oraee, B; Tavassoli, M; Oraee, K;
Open Access
Published: 01 Jan 2011
Publisher: Dept. of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering and Mineral Resources, West Virginia University
Country: United Kingdom

Since the advent of New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), shotcrete as a primary means of support in tunnels has been widely applied. It’s most important features are durability, speed of application and cost effectiveness. This paper introduces some tables that provide guidelines for the thickness of shotcrete required in some common situations of mine roadways. In order to devise such tables, two different arch sections, together with three different overburden types, were considered. Geotechnical parameters such as apparent cohesion and angle of internal friction of surrounding rocks were chosen, based on the five-category classification of Bieniawski. Two K0 factors (the ratio of horizontal stress to vertical stress) and an average rock density were utilized. Using numerical methods, 60 models were then devised in this way. By applying interaction diagrams of axial force and the bending moment for different thicknesses of shotcrete, appropriate shotcrete thickness for these models were calculated. The results of this research, as well as the methodology applied, can be used in mining roadway support design and all types of civil engineering tunnels.


Mining engineering, Shotcrete, Underground construction

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