McFarlane et al., 2000; Benson et al., 2002). These observations are at odds with the classical model of the annual Pacific hake life cycle as usually articulated (e.g. Alverson and Larkins, 1969; Bailey et al., 1982).
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________. 1981. Larval transport and recruitment of Pacific hake Merluccius productus. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 6:1-9.
________. 1982. The early life history of the Pacific hake, Merluccius productus. Fish. Bull. 80:589-598.
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________ , R. C. Francis, and P. R. Stevens. 1982. The life history and fishery of Pacific whiting, Merluccius productus. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep. 23:81-98.
________ , R. C. Francis, and K. F. Mais. 1986. Evaluating incidental catches of 0-age Pacific hake to forecast recruitment. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep. 27:109-112.
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