Pacific hake, Merluccius productus, the most abundant groundfish in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem
(CCLME), is a species of both commercial significance, supporting a large international fishery, and ecological importance, connecting other species as b... View more
McFarlane et al., 2000; Benson et al., 2002). These observations are at odds with the classical model of the annual Pacific hake life cycle as usually articulated (e.g. Alverson and Larkins, 1969; Bailey et al., 1982).
Agostini, V. N. 2005. Climate, ecology and productivity of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) and hake (Merluccius productus). Ph.D. dissert., Univ. of Wash., School Aquat. Fish. Sci., Seattle, 188 p.
________ , R. C. Francis, A. B. Hollowed, S. D. Pierce, C. W. Wilson, and A. N. Hendrix. 2006. The relationship between hake (Merluccius productus) distribution and poleward subsurface flow in the California Current System. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 63:2648-2659.
Ainley, D. G., H. R. Huber, and K. M. Bailey. 1982. Population fluctuations of California sea lions and the Pacific whiting fishery off central California. Fish. Bull. 80:253-258.
Alton, M. S., and M. O. Nelson. 1970. Pacific hake, Merluccius productus, in Washington and northern Oregon coastal waters. In Pacific hake, p. 35-42. Dep. Inter., U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Bur. Commer. Fish., Circ. 332.
Alverson, D. L., and H. A. Larkins. 1969. Status of the knowledge of the Pacific hake resource. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep. 13:24-31.
Angel, M. V. 1985. Vertical migrations in the oceanic realm: possible causes and probable effects. Contrib. Mar. Sci. 27:46-70.
Bailey, K. M. 1980. Recent changes in the distribution of hake larvae: causes and consequences. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep. 21:167-171.
________. 1981. Larval transport and recruitment of Pacific hake Merluccius productus. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 6:1-9.
________. 1982. The early life history of the Pacific hake, Merluccius productus. Fish. Bull. 80:589-598.