Biohemijska i funkcionalna svojstva piva sa dodatkom gljive Ganoderma lucidum

Doctoral thesis Serbian OPEN
Despotović, Saša M. (2017)
  • Publisher: University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture
  • Subject: pivo, Ganoderma lucidum, funkcionalna hrana, bioaktivna jedinjenja | beer, Ganoderma lucidum, functional food, bioactive compounds

Pivo možda nije najstarije alkoholno piće, ali je definitivno među najpopularnijim napitcima današnjice. Svoju ogromnu popularnost sticalo je vekovima, služeći ne samo kao osvežavajući napitak već i kao fiziološki značajna namirnica. Poslednjih decenija, vršena su brojna istraživanja koja su se bavila zdravstvenim aspektima piva. Istraživanja potvrđuju da pivo u umerenim količinama ima blagotvorna svojstva poput: smanjenja rizika od kardiovaskularnih bolesti, snižavanja holesterola u krvi, regulacije insulina, prevencije osteoporoze i demencije, a ujedno predstavlja izvor vitamina, minerala i antioksidanata. Gljive su od davnina poznate po svojim nutiritivnim i medicinskim svojstvima. Ganoderma lucidum korišćena je hiljadama godina u tradicionalnoj medicini dalekog istoka, korišćena je u verskim obredima, bila je dragocen poklon i inspiracija mnogim umetnicima, ispričana je u mnogim legendama, a danas predstavlja vredan proizvod sa tržištem od preko 2,5 milijardi US$. Svoju slavu stekla je u lečenju raznih bolesti i zasluženo je stekla nazive poput „Eliksir života”, „Hrana bogova” i „Gljiva univerzuma”. Hemijskom karakterizacijom plodonosnog tela, spora i micelije Ganoderma lucidum otkriveno je preko 400 različitih komponenti. Polisaharidi i triterpeni predstavljaju dominantne grupe jedinjenja u plodonosnom telu gljive, a slede ih fenoli, steroidi, amino-kiseline, micini, vitamini, nukleozidi, masne kiseline, nukleotidi i elementi u tragovima. Trenutna istraživanja fokusirana su na sekvencionisanje genoma Ganoderma spp., izdvajanju bioaktivnih komponenti i in vivo i in vitro ispitivanjima. Osnovni cilj doktorske disertacije bio je dobijanje novog proizvoda, specijalnog piva, sa povećanim funkcionalnim svojstava koristeći glјivu Ganoderma lucidum. U okviru istraživanja izvršena je sveobuhvatna analiza relevantnih faktora potrebnih za sagledavanje opravdanosti i primenjljivosti ovakvog rešenja. Detaljna analiza načina ekstrakcije gljive imala je za cilj utvrđivanje optimalnih uslova za izdvajanja bioaktivnih jedinjenja. Ispitivanje različitih uslova proizvodnje piva i uticaj načina dodavanja gljive i dobijenih ekstrakta na brzinu fermentacije i senzorne karakteristike dobijenih prozvoda vršeno je radi iznalaženja optimalnih uslova... Beer may not be the oldest alcoholic drink, but it is definitely one of the most popular drinks today. It has gained its immense popularity through centuries, serving not only as a refreshing beverage but also as a physiologically important foodstuff. In recent decades, numerous researches including health aspects of beer have been carried out. The researches confirm that beer, in moderate amounts, has beneficial properties such as: reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, lowering of blood cholesterol levels, regulation of insulin, prevention of osteoporosis and senile dementia, and it also represents a source of vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidants. Mushrooms have always been known for their nutritional and medical characteristics. Ganoderma lucidum has been used in traditional medicine of the Far East for thousands of years; it was used in religious ceremonies and was a precious gift and inspiration for many artists, it was a part of many legends and today it represents a valuable product with a market of over 2.5 billion US $. It gained its fame in the treatment of various diseases and deservedly got the titles such as "Elixir of Life", "Food of the Gods" and "Mushroom of the universe". More than 400 different components have been discovered by chemical characterization of the fruitful body, spores and mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum. Polysaccharides and triterpenes represent dominant groups of compounds in the fruitful body of the mushroom, and they are followed by phenols, steroids, amino-acids, spiramycin, vitamins, nucleosides, fatty acids, nucleotides and trace elements. Current researches are focused on the sequencing of the genome of Ganoderma spp., separation of bioactive components and in vivo and in vitro researches. The main objective of the PhD thesis was to obtain a new product, special beer, with enhanced functional characteristics using the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. A comprehensive analysis of relevant factors necessary for understanding the feasibility and applicability of such a solution has been carried out in the research. A detailed analysis of the way of the extraction of the mushroom was aimed to determine the optimal conditions for the separation of bioactive compounds...