Male and Female Pathways to Psychopathology: Findings from a Preventive Intervention Study
- Publisher: Erasmus University Rotterdam
textabstractThe objective of the present study was to extent the knowledge on the pathways to male and female psychopathology from childhood into early adolescence. In Chapter 1, the background of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) study was presented. The GBG study is a randomized controlled intervention study that started in 1998 when 666 children from 13 elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Rotterdam and Amsterdam were enrolled in the study at age 6. The GBG intervention is a universal classroom-based intervention aimed at the reduction of problem behavior and the promotion of prosocial behavior in elementary schoolchildren. In Chapter 1, we explained how the nesting of this randomized controlled preventive intervention allowed us to test the influence of hypothesized risk factors on the sexspecific pathways to externalizing and internalizing psychopathology spanning the period from middle childhood to early adolescence (from age 6 to 13 years). Using this method, we investigated: (1) the influence of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking on the pathway to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity symptoms in middle and late childhood, (2) the role of middle childhood behavioral, emotional, and social problems in the development of relational aggression from late childhood to early adolescence, (3) the influence of physical and relational victimization experiences during middle childhood in the pathways to anxiety and depression in early adolescence, and in addition, we examined (4) typologies of parenting behaviors and their association with childhood psychopathology.