Offer and Acceptance and the Dynamics of Negotiations: Arguments for Contract Theory from Negotiation Studies
Publisher: Erasmus Law Review
textabstractThe doctrine of offer and acceptance forms the basis of the rules of contract formation in most western legal systems. However, if parties enter into elaborate negotiations, these rules may become difficult to apply. This paper addresses the application of t... View more
8. B.P. Shapiro and R.S. Posner, 'Making the Major Sale', 84 Harvard Business Review 140, at 140 (2006).
9. Negotiation studies represent an interdisciplinary field of studies, using the methods of social psychology, economics and management science. D. Druckman, 'Frameworks, Cases, and Risk: Dupont's Legacy', in A. Colson (ed.), Entrer en Négociation. Mélanges en l'Honneur de Christophe Dupont (2011) 141, at 142. See also C. Dupont, La Négociation. Conduite, Théorie, Applications, 3rd ed. (1990), at 289; S.E. Weiss, 'International Business Negotiation in a Globalizing World: Reflections on the Contributions and Future of a (Sub)Field', 11 International Negotiation 287 (2006).
10. From the considerable literature, see Dupont (1990), above n. 9; D.A. Lax and J.K. Sebenius, 3-D Negotiation: Powerful Tools to Change the Game in Your Most Important Deals (2006); Weiss, above n. 9; C. Dupont, La Négociation Post-moderne, Bilan des Connaissances, Acquis et Lacunes, Perspectives (2006); R. Mnookin, Bargaining with the Devil: When to Negotiate and when to Fight (2010); A. Lempereur and A. Colson, Méthode de Négociation, 2nd ed. (2010); R. Lewicki, B. Barry & D. Saunders, Negotiation, 6th ed. (2010) with further references.
11. See inter alia R. Fisher, W. Ury & B. Patton, Getting to Yes: Negotiating an Agreement Without Giving In, 3rd ed. (2011). See also practically orientated projects of the Program on Negotiation (PON) at Harvard Law School, <http:// www .pon .harvard .edu/ about/ > (last visited 14 Oct. 2013); 'Clingendael' Netherlands Institute of International Relations, <www.clingendael.nl> (last visited 14 Oct. 2013); ESSEC IRÉNÉ (Institut de Recherche et de l'Enseignement sur la Négociation), <http://irene.essec.edu/> (last visited 17 June 2013).
12. This hypothesis is based upon two assumptions: first, that contract law is closely connected with the realities it regulates, and second, that the knowledge on negotiation reported in negotiation studies reflects the empirical reality of negotiation. See generally with further references W.H. van Boom, I. Giesen & A.J. Verheij (eds.), Gedrag en Privaatrecht: Over Gedragspresumpties en Gedragseffecten bij Privaatrechtelijke Leerstukken (2008); B. van Klink and S. Taekema 'On the Border: Limits and Possibilities of Interdisciplinary Research', in B. van Klink and S. Taekema (eds.), Law and Method: Interdisciplinary Research into Law (2011). See also n. 9 above for the characterisation of negotiation studies.
13. On the scope see the Preamble of the UNIDROIT Principles. The level of abstraction of this paper is general legal theory, and references are primarily made to the UNIDROIT Principles. Civil law and (English) common law systems are, however, distinguished in Sec. 4.3., discussing the diverging assumptions about negotiation process that underpin the law in these systems.
14. On the definition of the 'battle of forms', see inter alia U. Magnus, 'Last Shot vs. Knock Out: Still Battle over the Battle of Forms under the CISG', in R. Cranston, J. Ramberg & J. Ziegel (eds.), Commercial Law Challenges in the 21st Century: Jan Hellner in Memoriam (2007) 185, at 185 ff.; G. Dannemann, 'The “Battle of the Forms” and the Conflict of Laws', in F.D. Rose (ed.), Lex Mercatoria: Essays on International Commercial Law in Honour of Francis Reynolds (2000) 199, at 199 ff.
15. S.A. Smith, Contract Theory (2004), at 168.
16. Ferrari, above n. 1, at 625 ff.; E.A. Farnsworth, 'Comparative Contract Law', in M. Reimann and R. Zimmermann (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Law (2006) 899, at 915 ff.; Schlesinger (ed.), above n. 2, at 1-177.
17. Ferrari, above n. 1, at 625 ff.; Farnsworth, above n. 16, at 915 ff.; R. Schlesinger, above n. 2.