Muslim merchants and working-class in action: nationalism, social mobilization and boycott movement in the Ottoman Empire 1908-1914

Doctoral thesis English OPEN
Çetinkaya, Doğan, Y. (2010)
  • Publisher: Institute for Area Studies / School of Middle Eastern Studies, Faculty of the Humanities, Leiden University

The boycott as an economic weapon appeared in the Ottoman Empire after the 1908 Revolution. The revolution paved the way for a chaotic social and political atmosphere in which the order of things changed drastically. This study will trace how the politics of the new era and the Boycott Movement influenced each other. Two weapons—the boycott and the public meetings—would be the most typical tools in the repertoire of the early Muslim/Turkish nationalism. This work will depict how these two crucial instruments of mass politics functioned. The Boycott Movement consisted of different social classes. These different social groups had diverse agendas. This is significant because the historiography depicts Turkish nationalism as an exclusively intellectual current. However, nationalism is also a social phenomenon. Nationalist movements are also social movements that mobilize a wide range of social groups and deeply influence the daily life of the population. The Boycott Movement in the Ottoman Empire contributed to the rise of Muslim/Turkish nationalism and turned particular ethnic/religious problems into a social problem or national question. This thesis tries to indicate how political figures, civil organizations, and different social classes played a role in the rising nationalism and in the elimination of non-Muslims.
  • References (130)
    130 references, page 1 of 13

    IN THE OTTOMAN EMpIRE. .................................................................................................................................................13 1.1. Non-Muslim Bourgeoisie and the State. .........................................................................................................14 1.2. Muslim Merchants..............................................................................................................................................................................23 1.3. The Muslim Working-Class. ..................................................................................................................................................35 1.4. Culture, Class Consciousness, and Islam. .......................................................................................................42 C H A P T E R . I I

    AS A pOLITICAL WEApON, 1908. ...........................................................................................................................47 2.1. People Take Action: Mass Actions and Public Demonstrations.................................50 2.2. The Organization..................................................................................................................................................................................66 2.3. The Workers' Boycott: Oscillating between Strike and Boycott.................................72 2.4. Merchants during the Boycott: The Weakest Link...........................................................................87 2.5. The Popularization of the National Economy.........................................................................................96 C H A P T E R . I V

    IN pEACETIMES, 1913-1914.........................................................................................................................................189 4.1. The Political Milieu. .......................................................................................................................................................................190 4.2. Pamphleting the Muslim Public...............................................................................................................................193 4.3. The National Economy and an Open Letter to the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate. ................................................................................................................203 4.4. “Henceforth Goods to Be Purchased from Muslim Merchants”. ...........................207 4.5. Banditry and Agency in the Boycott Movement...........................................................................222 E P I L O G U E

    CONSTITUTIONAL pERIOD AND THE bOyCOTT MOv EMENT. ............237 The Popularization of Politics and the Shift in Mass Politics. ..................................................237 Mass Politics, National Economy, and the Boycott Movement............................................250 Popular Ideology, Islam, and the Mobilization of the Masses...............................................261 For the tobacco protest in Iran, see: Nikkie R. Keddie, Religion and Rebellion in Iran: The Tobacco Protest of 1891-1892, (London: Frank Cass, 1966); John Foran, Fragile Resistance: Social Transformation in Iran from 1500 to the Revolution, (Boulder: Westview Press, 1993); Mansoor Moaddel, “Shi'i Political Discourse and Class Mobilization in the Tobacco Movement of 1890-92,” A Century of Revolution: Social Movements in Iran, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994). For the boycotts in China, see: Guanhua Wang, In Search of Justice: The 1905-1906 Chinese Anti-American Boycott, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001); Wong Sin Kiong, China's Anti-American Boycott Movement in 1905: A Study in Urban Protest, (New York: Peter Lang, 2002); C.F. Remer, A Study of Chinese Boycotts, (New York: John Hopkins University Press Reprints, 1979); Donald A. Jordan, Chinese Boycotts versus Japanese Bombs, (Michigan: The University of Michigan Press, 1994).

    ii. AYE (Greek Foreign Ministry Archives, Athens) A-21 (Files on economic war against Greeks 1910-1911) A21a (Files on anti-Greek movements 1914) 195 Embassy and Consulates, Turkey (formerly Ottoman Empire): General Correspondence (Constantinople, Sublime Porte, Smyrna, Beirut, Salonica, Trabzon, Erzurum, Jerusalem, Aleppo, Edirne (and vice-consuls in these provinces), 1908-1914).

    İzmir Tüccaran ve Esnefan-ı İslamiyyesine Mahsus Rehber, (Publishing Place and Publishing House does not exist, 1330), in Engin Berber (Translator), İzmir 1876 ve 1908 (Yunanca Rehberlere Göre Meşrutiyette İzmir), (İzmir: İBB Kent Kitaplığı, 2008).

    Müslümanlara Mahsus, (Publishing Place and Publishing House does not exist, 1329), (The Long Version).

    Müslümanlara Mahsus, (Publishing Place and Publishing House does not exist, 1329), (The Short Version).

    Müslümanlara Mahsus Kurtulmak Yolu, (Publishing Place and Publishing House does not exist, 1329).

    Müslüman ve Türklere, (Publishing Place and Publishing House does not exist, 1329).

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