publication . Article . Other literature type . 2016

Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment

Aysu Okbay; Mark Alan Fontana; James J. Lee; Tune H. Pers; Cornelius A. Rietveld; Patrick Turley; Guo-Bo Chen; Valur Emilsson; S. Fleur W. Meddens; Sven Oskarsson; ...
Open Access English
  • Published: 26 May 2016 Journal: Nature, volume 533, issue 7,604, pages 539-542 (issn: 0028-0836, eissn: 1476-4687, Copyright policy)
  • Publisher: HAL CCSD
Abstract
Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found ...
Subjects
free text keywords: Behavioural genetics, Genome-wide association studies, Psychiatric disorders, Learning and memory, [QFIN]Quantitative Finance [q-fin], ta3111, Multidisciplinary Sciences, Article, QH426, Alzheimer Disease, Bipolar Disorder, Brain, Cognition, Computational Biology, Educational Status, Fetus, Gene Expression Regulation, Gene-Environment Interaction, Genome-Wide Association Study, Great Britain, Humans, Molecular Sequence Annotation, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Schizophrenia, /dk/atira/pure/researchoutput/pubmedpublicationtype/D016428, Journal Article, /dk/atira/pure/researchoutput/pubmedpublicationtype/D052061, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, /dk/atira/pure/researchoutput/pubmedpublicationtype/D013485, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Alzheimer Disease/genetics; Bipolar Disorder/genetics; Brain/metabolism; Cognition; Computational Biology; Educational Status; Fetus/metabolism; Gene Expression Regulation/genetics; Gene-Environment Interaction; Genome-Wide Association Study; Great Britain; Humans; Molecular Sequence Annotation; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics; Schizophrenia/genetics, Science & Technology, Science & Technology - Other Topics, HERITABILITY, TRAITS, ACHIEVEMENT, IQ, United Kingdom, LifeLines Cohort Study, General Science & Technology, MD Multidisciplinary, Soziales und Gesundheit, Bildung, Kultursektor, Non-Profit-Sektor, Genetische Forschung, Bildungsniveau, Educational attainment, Locus (genetics), Gene–environment interaction, Candidate gene, Genetics, Biobank
Funded by
NIH| Analysis of Genome-Wide Data in the Health and Retirement Study
Project
  • Funder: National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • Project Code: 5R01AG042568-03
  • Funding stream: NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON AGING
,
EC| ePerMed
Project
ePerMed
Rise of scientific excellence and collaboration for implementing personalised medicine in Estonia
  • Funder: European Commission (EC)
  • Project Code: 692145
  • Funding stream: H2020 | CSA
Validated by funder
,
WT
Project
  • Funder: Wellcome Trust (WT)
,
NIH| ECONOMICS OF AGING TRAINING PROGRAM -- EXTENSION
Project
  • Funder: National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • Project Code: 5T32AG000186-10
  • Funding stream: NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON AGING
,
NIH| FINANCIAL STATUS--RETIREMENT SAVING PROGRAMS
Project
  • Funder: National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • Project Code: 2P01AG005842-04
  • Funding stream: NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON AGING
Communities
Neuroinformatics
16 references, page 1 of 2

Rietveld, CA. GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment. Science. 2013; 340: 1467-1471 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Rietveld, CA. Replicability and robustness of GWAS for behavioral traits. Psychol Sci. 2014; 25: 1975-1986 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Yang, J. Genomic inflation factors under polygenic inheritance. Eur J Hum Genet. 2011; 19: 807-812 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Bulik-Sullivan, BK. LD Score regression distinguishes confounding from polygenicity in genome-wide association studies. Nat Genet. 2015; 47: 291-295 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Sudlow, C. UK Biobank: An open access resource for identifying the causes of a wide range of complex diseases of middle and old age. PLoS Med. 2015; 12: e1001779 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Fowler, T, Zammit, S, Owen, MJ, Rasmussen, F. A population-based study of shared genetic variation between premorbid IQ and psychosis among male twin pairs and sibling pairs from Sweden. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012; 69: 460-466 [PubMed]

Tambs, K, Sundet, JM, Magnus, P, Berg, K. Genetic and environmental contributions to the covariance between occupational status, educational attainment, and IQ: a study of twins. Behav Genet. 1989; 19: 209-222 [PubMed]

Thompson, LA, Detterman, DK, Plomin, R. Associations between cognitive abilities and scholastic achievement: Genetic overlap but environmental differences. Psychol Sci. 1991; 2: 158-165

Bulik-Sullivan, B. An atlas of genetic correlations across human diseases and traits. Nat Genet. 2015; 47: 1236-1241 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Ardlie, KG. The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) pilot analysis: Multitissue gene regulation in humans. Science. 2015; 348: 648-660 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Pers, TH. Biological interpretation of genome-wide association studies using predicted gene functions. Nat Commun. 2015; 6: 5890 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

BrainSpan atlas of the developing human brain. 2015

Purcell, SM. Common polygenic variation contributes to risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Nature. 2009; 460: 748-752 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Krapohl, E. The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2014; 111: 15273-15278 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Branigan, AR, McCallum, KJ, Freese, J. Variation in the heritability of educational attainment: An international meta-analysis. Northwest Univ Inst Policy Res Work Pap. 2013; 92: 109-140

16 references, page 1 of 2
Abstract
Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found ...
Subjects
free text keywords: Behavioural genetics, Genome-wide association studies, Psychiatric disorders, Learning and memory, [QFIN]Quantitative Finance [q-fin], ta3111, Multidisciplinary Sciences, Article, QH426, Alzheimer Disease, Bipolar Disorder, Brain, Cognition, Computational Biology, Educational Status, Fetus, Gene Expression Regulation, Gene-Environment Interaction, Genome-Wide Association Study, Great Britain, Humans, Molecular Sequence Annotation, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Schizophrenia, /dk/atira/pure/researchoutput/pubmedpublicationtype/D016428, Journal Article, /dk/atira/pure/researchoutput/pubmedpublicationtype/D052061, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, /dk/atira/pure/researchoutput/pubmedpublicationtype/D013485, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Alzheimer Disease/genetics; Bipolar Disorder/genetics; Brain/metabolism; Cognition; Computational Biology; Educational Status; Fetus/metabolism; Gene Expression Regulation/genetics; Gene-Environment Interaction; Genome-Wide Association Study; Great Britain; Humans; Molecular Sequence Annotation; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics; Schizophrenia/genetics, Science & Technology, Science & Technology - Other Topics, HERITABILITY, TRAITS, ACHIEVEMENT, IQ, United Kingdom, LifeLines Cohort Study, General Science & Technology, MD Multidisciplinary, Soziales und Gesundheit, Bildung, Kultursektor, Non-Profit-Sektor, Genetische Forschung, Bildungsniveau, Educational attainment, Locus (genetics), Gene–environment interaction, Candidate gene, Genetics, Biobank
Funded by
NIH| Analysis of Genome-Wide Data in the Health and Retirement Study
Project
  • Funder: National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • Project Code: 5R01AG042568-03
  • Funding stream: NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON AGING
,
EC| ePerMed
Project
ePerMed
Rise of scientific excellence and collaboration for implementing personalised medicine in Estonia
  • Funder: European Commission (EC)
  • Project Code: 692145
  • Funding stream: H2020 | CSA
Validated by funder
,
WT
Project
  • Funder: Wellcome Trust (WT)
,
NIH| ECONOMICS OF AGING TRAINING PROGRAM -- EXTENSION
Project
  • Funder: National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • Project Code: 5T32AG000186-10
  • Funding stream: NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON AGING
,
NIH| FINANCIAL STATUS--RETIREMENT SAVING PROGRAMS
Project
  • Funder: National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • Project Code: 2P01AG005842-04
  • Funding stream: NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON AGING
Communities
Neuroinformatics
16 references, page 1 of 2

Rietveld, CA. GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment. Science. 2013; 340: 1467-1471 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Rietveld, CA. Replicability and robustness of GWAS for behavioral traits. Psychol Sci. 2014; 25: 1975-1986 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Yang, J. Genomic inflation factors under polygenic inheritance. Eur J Hum Genet. 2011; 19: 807-812 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Bulik-Sullivan, BK. LD Score regression distinguishes confounding from polygenicity in genome-wide association studies. Nat Genet. 2015; 47: 291-295 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Sudlow, C. UK Biobank: An open access resource for identifying the causes of a wide range of complex diseases of middle and old age. PLoS Med. 2015; 12: e1001779 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Fowler, T, Zammit, S, Owen, MJ, Rasmussen, F. A population-based study of shared genetic variation between premorbid IQ and psychosis among male twin pairs and sibling pairs from Sweden. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012; 69: 460-466 [PubMed]

Tambs, K, Sundet, JM, Magnus, P, Berg, K. Genetic and environmental contributions to the covariance between occupational status, educational attainment, and IQ: a study of twins. Behav Genet. 1989; 19: 209-222 [PubMed]

Thompson, LA, Detterman, DK, Plomin, R. Associations between cognitive abilities and scholastic achievement: Genetic overlap but environmental differences. Psychol Sci. 1991; 2: 158-165

Bulik-Sullivan, B. An atlas of genetic correlations across human diseases and traits. Nat Genet. 2015; 47: 1236-1241 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Ardlie, KG. The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) pilot analysis: Multitissue gene regulation in humans. Science. 2015; 348: 648-660 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Pers, TH. Biological interpretation of genome-wide association studies using predicted gene functions. Nat Commun. 2015; 6: 5890 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

BrainSpan atlas of the developing human brain. 2015

Purcell, SM. Common polygenic variation contributes to risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Nature. 2009; 460: 748-752 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Krapohl, E. The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2014; 111: 15273-15278 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Branigan, AR, McCallum, KJ, Freese, J. Variation in the heritability of educational attainment: An international meta-analysis. Northwest Univ Inst Policy Res Work Pap. 2013; 92: 109-140

16 references, page 1 of 2
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