publication . Article . 2004

How to be sweet? Extra floral nectar allocation by Gossypium hirsutum fits optimal defense theory predictions

Wäckers, F.L.; Bonifay, C.;
Open Access English
  • Published: 01 Jan 2004
  • Country: Netherlands
Abstract
Plants employ nectar for two distinct functions. Floral nectar has traditionally been viewed in the context of pollination. Extrafloral nectar on the other hand, can act as an indirect defense, allowing the plant to recruit predators and parasitoids. Whereas this makes for a clear-cut categorization, in reality the functions may not be so discrete. Extrafloral nectar may serve a role in pollination, while floral nectar can be utilized by predators and parasitoids and thus can contribute to plant defense. Here we use the optimal defense theory to generate predictions with respect to allocation patterns of defensive nectar. These predictions are then tested using ...
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Article . 2004
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51 references, page 1 of 4

Agrawal, A. A., and R. Karban. 1999. Why induced defenses may be favored over constitutive strategies in plants. Pages 45-61 in R. Tollrian and C. D. Harvell, editors. The ecology and evolution of inducible defenses. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA. [OpenAIRE]

Agrawal, A. A., and M. T. Rutter. 1998. Dynamic anti-herbivore defense in ant-plants: the role of induced responses. Oikos 83:227-236.

Altshuler, D. L. 1999. Novel interactions of non-pollinating ants with pollinators and fruit consumers in a tropical forest. Oecologia 119:600-606.

Arnold, T. M., and J. C. Schultz. 2002. Induced sink strength as a prerequisite for induced tannin biosynthesis in developing leaves of Populus. Oecologia 130:585-593.

Baker, H. G., and I. Baker. 1982. Chemical constituents of nectar in relation to pollination mechanisms and phylogeny. Pages 131-171 in M. H. Nitecki, editor. Biochemical aspects of evolutionary biology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Baldwin, I. T. 1994. Chemical changes rapidly induced by folivory. Pages 1-23 in E. A. Bernays, editor. Insect-plant interactions. Volume V. CRC Press, Boca Rotan, Florida, USA.

Beattie, A. J. 1985. The evolutionary ecology of ant-plant mutualisms. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. [OpenAIRE]

Bentley, B. L. 1977a. Extrafloral nectaries and protection by pugnacious bodyguards. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 8:407-427. [OpenAIRE]

Bentley, B. L. 1977b. The protective function of ants visiting the extrafloral nectaries of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae). Journal of Ecology 65:27-38.

Bezemer, T. M., R. Wagenaar, N. M. van Dam, and F. L. Wa¨ckers. 2003. Interactions between above- and belowground insect herbivores as mediated by the plant defense system. Oikos 101:555-562.

Bory, G., and D. Clair Maczulajtys. 1986. Nectar composition and role of the extrafloral nectar in Ailanthus glandulosa. Canadian Journal of Botany 64:247-253.

Daumann, E. 1932. U¨ber postflorale Nektarabscheidung. Beihefte zum botanischen Centralblatt 49:720-734.

Engel, V., M. K. Fischer, F. L. Wa¨ckers, and W. V o¨lkl. 2001. Interactions between extrafloral nectaries, aphids and ants: are there competition effects between plants and homopteran sugar sources? Oecologia 129:577-584.

Ford, H. A., and N. Forde. 1976. Birds as possible pollinators of Acacia pycnantha. Australian Journal of Botany 24:793- 795.

Fryxell, P. A. 1979. Natural history of the cotton tribe. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas, USA.

51 references, page 1 of 4
Abstract
Plants employ nectar for two distinct functions. Floral nectar has traditionally been viewed in the context of pollination. Extrafloral nectar on the other hand, can act as an indirect defense, allowing the plant to recruit predators and parasitoids. Whereas this makes for a clear-cut categorization, in reality the functions may not be so discrete. Extrafloral nectar may serve a role in pollination, while floral nectar can be utilized by predators and parasitoids and thus can contribute to plant defense. Here we use the optimal defense theory to generate predictions with respect to allocation patterns of defensive nectar. These predictions are then tested using ...
Related Organizations
Communities
Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
Download from
KNAW Repository
Article . 2004
Provider: NARCIS
51 references, page 1 of 4

Agrawal, A. A., and R. Karban. 1999. Why induced defenses may be favored over constitutive strategies in plants. Pages 45-61 in R. Tollrian and C. D. Harvell, editors. The ecology and evolution of inducible defenses. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA. [OpenAIRE]

Agrawal, A. A., and M. T. Rutter. 1998. Dynamic anti-herbivore defense in ant-plants: the role of induced responses. Oikos 83:227-236.

Altshuler, D. L. 1999. Novel interactions of non-pollinating ants with pollinators and fruit consumers in a tropical forest. Oecologia 119:600-606.

Arnold, T. M., and J. C. Schultz. 2002. Induced sink strength as a prerequisite for induced tannin biosynthesis in developing leaves of Populus. Oecologia 130:585-593.

Baker, H. G., and I. Baker. 1982. Chemical constituents of nectar in relation to pollination mechanisms and phylogeny. Pages 131-171 in M. H. Nitecki, editor. Biochemical aspects of evolutionary biology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Baldwin, I. T. 1994. Chemical changes rapidly induced by folivory. Pages 1-23 in E. A. Bernays, editor. Insect-plant interactions. Volume V. CRC Press, Boca Rotan, Florida, USA.

Beattie, A. J. 1985. The evolutionary ecology of ant-plant mutualisms. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. [OpenAIRE]

Bentley, B. L. 1977a. Extrafloral nectaries and protection by pugnacious bodyguards. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 8:407-427. [OpenAIRE]

Bentley, B. L. 1977b. The protective function of ants visiting the extrafloral nectaries of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae). Journal of Ecology 65:27-38.

Bezemer, T. M., R. Wagenaar, N. M. van Dam, and F. L. Wa¨ckers. 2003. Interactions between above- and belowground insect herbivores as mediated by the plant defense system. Oikos 101:555-562.

Bory, G., and D. Clair Maczulajtys. 1986. Nectar composition and role of the extrafloral nectar in Ailanthus glandulosa. Canadian Journal of Botany 64:247-253.

Daumann, E. 1932. U¨ber postflorale Nektarabscheidung. Beihefte zum botanischen Centralblatt 49:720-734.

Engel, V., M. K. Fischer, F. L. Wa¨ckers, and W. V o¨lkl. 2001. Interactions between extrafloral nectaries, aphids and ants: are there competition effects between plants and homopteran sugar sources? Oecologia 129:577-584.

Ford, H. A., and N. Forde. 1976. Birds as possible pollinators of Acacia pycnantha. Australian Journal of Botany 24:793- 795.

Fryxell, P. A. 1979. Natural history of the cotton tribe. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas, USA.

51 references, page 1 of 4
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