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COVID-19 и офталмолошки манифестации: преглед на литература

Authors: Gjoshevska-Dashtevska, Emilija; Trpevska-Shekerinov, Natasha; Ivanova, Maja;

COVID-19 и офталмолошки манифестации: преглед на литература

Abstract

Епидемијата на COVID-19 започна во декември 2019 година во Вухан, Кина, а пандемија беше официјално прогласена од Светската здравствена организација (СЗО) во март 2020 година. COVID-19 може да ги афектира и очите. Офталмолошките манифестации на вирусот не се толку фреквентни; преваленцијата досега изнесува околу 3%. Препознавањето на можноста за офталмолошка трансмисија и манифестација на вирусот е од сигнификантно значење за офталмолозите и здравствените работници. Најчеста офталмолошка манифестација, според објавените студии, е фоликуларен конјунктивитис, со сите симптоми и знаци на вирусен конјунктивитис. Обично е билатерален, а пациентите пројавуваат симптоми слични на аденовирусен конјунктивитис, со дискомфорт, чувство на туѓо тело, црвенило или, пак, воопшто немаат субјективни симптоми. Симптомите се поизразени кај пациенти со потешка клиничка слика на болеста. Една од опишаните неспецифични манифестации на COVID-19, како иницијална манифестација, е и кератоконјунктивитис. Влијанието на вирусот врз ретината и крвните садови не се сè уште истражени целосно. Докажано е дека COVID-19 може да се изолира од солзите или од окуларната површина, преку брис од конјунктива со PCR.Најчестиот начин на трансмисија е преку директен контакт и преку аеросоли. Очите, преку назолакрималниот систем, може да бидат влез за респираторна инфекција, а преку лакрималната жлезда може да настане и хематогено ширење на вирусот. Неопходно е навремено препознавање на офталмолошките симптоми во време на оваа пандемија, како од страна на офталмолозите, така и од другите здравствени работници, затоа што понекогаш тие може да претставуваат единствена манифестација на COVID-19, а од друга страна, тоа ќе доведе до поголема заштита и спречување на ширење на вирусот. Мерките на превенција треба да се насочени кон применување административни протоколи, персонална заштита и контрола во средината.

The epidemics of COVID-19 started in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and the World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared a pandemic in March 2020. COVID-19 can also affect the eyes. Ophthalmic manifestations of the virus are not so frequent; the prevalence is about 3% up to now. Recognizing the possibility of ophthalmic transmission and manifestation of the virus is of significant importance for ophthalmologists and health workers. According to published studies, the most common ophthalmic manifestation is follicular conjunctivitis with all the symptoms and signs of viral conjunctivitis. It is usually bilateral, and patients present adenoviral-like symptoms, discomfort, foreign body sensation, redness, or they have no subjective symptoms. The symptoms are more pronounced in patients with a more severe clinical picture of the disease. One of the described non-specific manifestations of COVID-19 as an initial manifestation is keratoconjunctivitis. The effects of the virus on the retina and blood vessels have not been fully investigated, yet. It has been proven that COVID-19 can be isolated from tears and from ocular surface by PCR conjunctival swab. The most common mode of transmission is through direct contact and through aerosols. Through the nasolacrimal system, the eyes can be the entrance for respiratory infection and hematogenous spread of the virus can occur through the lacrimal gland. Early recognition of the ophthalmic symptoms by ophthalmologists as well as the other health workers during this pandemic is necessary because sometimes they can be the only manifestation of COVID-19, and on the other hand, it will lead to greater protection and prevention of the virus spreading. Prevention measures should be focused on the application of administrative protocols, personal protection and environmental control.

Keywords

prevention, конјунктивитис, ophthalmic manifestations, трансмисија, превенција, conjunctivitis, transmission, COVID-19, офталмолошки манифестации

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This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
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This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
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This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
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