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The FASEB Journal
Article . 2010
License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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Effects of nitric oxide on HIF‐1α and FIH‐1 following Clostridium difficile toxin exposure

Authors: Joshua Youngun Lee; Simon A. Hirota; Danya Traboulsi; Paul L. Beck; Justin A. MacDonald;

Effects of nitric oxide on HIF‐1α and FIH‐1 following Clostridium difficile toxin exposure

Abstract

Clostridium difficile (C.diff) is a leading cause of infectious colitis in humans. C.diff toxins disrupt the intestinal epithelial barrier and induce the release of proinflammatory mediators. The hypoxia‐inducible factor‐1 (HIF‐1α) is a stress‐induced transcription factor that mediates mucosal and barrier protective genes. Nitric oxide (NO) and the factor‐inhibiting HIF‐1α (FIH‐1) modulate HIF‐1α expression and signaling, respectively. We hypothesize that NO produced during C.diff toxin‐induced intestinal injury is an important signal to activate HIF‐1α‐mediated protection against C.diff toxin‐induced damage.The in vitro studies analyzed HIF‐1α and FIH‐1 levels during toxin exposure of Caco2 cells. Cells were challenged with both toxin and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors to study NO effects on HIF‐1α/FIH‐1 expression. In vivo studies assessed ileal loop tissue from toxin‐treated wild‐type (WT) and inducible NOS knockout (iNOS KO) mice.We have identified that HIF‐1α levels increase at least two‐fold in toxin‐treated cells. FIH‐1 levels also show a 35% decrease in response to toxin. This increase in HIF‐1α protein was suppressed with NOS inhibition. In vivo, serum NO levels increased with toxin exposure; a response which was abrogated in iNOS KO mice.Further study is needed to demonstrate a direct effect of NO on HIF‐1α levels in response to C.diff toxin in vivo. Funding provided by CAG and CIHR.

Related Organizations
Subjects by Vocabulary

Microsoft Academic Graph classification: Chemistry Clostridium difficile toxin A Microbiology Nitric oxide chemistry.chemical_compound HIF1A

Keywords

Biochemistry, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Biotechnology

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    This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
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    This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
    Average
    influence
    This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
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citations
This is an alternative to the "Influence" indicator, which also reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Citations provided by BIP!
popularity
This indicator reflects the "current" impact/attention (the "hype") of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Popularity provided by BIP!
influence
This indicator reflects the overall/total impact of an article in the research community at large, based on the underlying citation network (diachronically).
BIP!Influence provided by BIP!
impulse
This indicator reflects the initial momentum of an article directly after its publication, based on the underlying citation network.
BIP!Impulse provided by BIP!
0
Average
Average
Average
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CIHR
Project
  • Funder: Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
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