Oxidative stress and Parkinson’s Disease

Article English OPEN
Javier eBlesa ; Javier eBlesa ; Javier eBlesa ; Ines eTrigo-Damas ; Ines eTrigo-Damas ; Anna eQuiroga-Varela ; Vernice Ruffin Jackson-Lewis (2015)
  • Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
  • Journal: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy (issn: 1662-5129)
  • Related identifiers: doi: 10.3389/fnana.2015.00091/full, doi: 10.3389/fnana.2015.00091
  • Subject: QM1-695 | Human anatomy | Neurosciences. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry | Neuroinflammation | RC321-571 | Mitochondrial dysfunction | Parkinson Disease | Dopamine | Oxidative Stress
    mesheuropmc: nervous system

Parkinson disease is a chronic, progressive neurological disease that is associated with a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. The molecular mechanisms underlying the loss of these neurons still remain elusive. Oxidative stress is thought to play an important role in dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Complex I deficiencies of the respiratory chain account for the majority of unfavorable neuronal degeneration in Parkinson’s Disease. Environmental factors, such as neurotoxins, insecticides like rotenone, pesticides like Paraquat, dopamine itself and genetic mutations in Parkinson’s Disease related proteins contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction which precedes reactive oxygen species formation. In this mini review, we give an update of the classical pathways involving these mechanisms of neurodegeneration, the biochemical and molecular events that mediate or regulate DA neuronal vulnerability, and the role of PD-related gene products in modulating cellular responses to oxidative stress in the course of the neurodegenerative process.
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