Estimation of Non-Revenue Water Ratio for Sustainable Management Using Artificial Neural Network and Z-Score in Incheon, Republic of Korea

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Dongwoo Jang; Gyewoon Choi;
  • Publisher: MDPI AG
  • Journal: Sustainability (issn: 2071-1050)
  • Publisher copyright policies & self-archiving
  • Related identifiers: doi: 10.3390/su9111933
  • Subject: water distribution system | non-revenue water | artificial neural network | multiple regression analysis | Environmental effects of industries and plants | TD194-195 | Renewable energy sources | TJ807-830 | Environmental sciences | GE1-350

The non-revenue water (NRW) ratio in a water distribution system is the ratio of the loss due to unbilled authorized consumption, apparent losses and real losses to the overall system input volume (SIV). The method of estimating the NRW ratio by measurement might not wo... View more
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