publication . Article . 2017

Estimation of Non-Revenue Water Ratio for Sustainable Management Using Artificial Neural Network and Z-Score in Incheon, Republic of Korea

Dongwoo Jang; Gyewoon Choi;
Open Access English
  • Published: 01 Oct 2017 Journal: Sustainability (issn: 2071-1050, Copyright policy)
  • Publisher: MDPI AG
Abstract
The non-revenue water (NRW) ratio in a water distribution system is the ratio of the loss due to unbilled authorized consumption, apparent losses and real losses to the overall system input volume (SIV). The method of estimating the NRW ratio by measurement might not work in an area with no district metered areas (DMAs) or with unclear administrative district. Through multiple regression analyses is a statistical analysis method for calculating the NRW ratio using the main parameters of the water distribution system, although its disadvantage is lower accuracy than that of the measured NRW ratio. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) was used to esti...
Subjects
free text keywords: water distribution system, non-revenue water, artificial neural network, multiple regression analysis, Environmental effects of industries and plants, TD194-195, Renewable energy sources, TJ807-830, Environmental sciences, GE1-350, Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment, Geography, Planning and Development, Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law, Environmental resource management, business.industry, business, Statistical analysis, Economics, Distribution system, Regression analysis, Standard score, Linear regression, Econometrics, Statistics, Outlier removal
Powered by OpenAIRE Open Research Graph
Any information missing or wrong?Report an Issue
publication . Article . 2017

Estimation of Non-Revenue Water Ratio for Sustainable Management Using Artificial Neural Network and Z-Score in Incheon, Republic of Korea

Dongwoo Jang; Gyewoon Choi;