publication . Article . 2019

Harnessing the Four Elements for Mental Health

Jerome Sarris; Jerome Sarris; Michael de Manincor; Fiona Hargraves; Jack Tsonis; Jack Tsonis;
Open Access English
  • Published: 01 Apr 2019 Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry (issn: 1664-0640, Copyright policy)
  • Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
Abstract
Humans are intimately connected to nature, and our physical and mental health is influenced strongly by our environment. The “elements,” classically described in humoral theory as Fire, Water, Earth, and Air, all may impact our mental health. In a contemporary sense, these elements reflect a range of modifiable factors: UV light or heat therapy (Fire); sauna, hydrotherapy, and balneotherapy (Water); nature-based exposure therapy and horticulture (Earth); oxygen-rich/clean air exposure; and breathing techniques (Air). This theoretical scoping review paper details the emerging evidence for a range of these elements, covering epidemiological and interventional data...
Subjects
free text keywords: lifestyle, mental health, mood, anxiety, psychological, well-being, Psychiatry, RC435-571, Review, nature, lifestyle medicine, Psychiatry and Mental health, Applied psychology, Psychological intervention, Art therapy, medicine.medical_specialty, medicine, Psychology, Balneotherapy, medicine.medical_treatment, Hydrotherapy, Exposure therapy, Breathing exercises, Classical element
94 references, page 1 of 7

1 Logan AC Selhub EM Vis Medicatrix naturae: does nature “minister to the mind”? Biopsychosoc Med (2012) 6(1):11. 10.1186/1751-0759-6-11 22472137 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

2 Hidaka B Depression as a disease of modernity: explanations for increasing prevalence. J Affect Dis ord (2012) 140(3):205–14. 10.1016/j.jad.2011.12.036 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

3 Roberts M Modernity, mental illness and the crisis of meaning. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs (2007) 14(3):277–81. 10.1111/j.1365-2850.2007.01074.x [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

4 Logan AC Katzman MA Balanzá-Martínez V Natural environments, ancestral diets, and microbial ecology: is there a modern “paleo-deficit disorder”? Part I J Physiol Anthropol (2015) 34:1. 10.1186/s40101-015-0041-y 25636731 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

5 Stelmack R Stalikas A Galen and the humour theory of temperament. Pers Individ Dif (1991) 12(3):255–63. 10.1016/0191-8869(91)90111-N [DOI]

6 Patwardhan B Warude D Pushpangadan P Bhatt N Ayurveda and traditional Chinese medicine: a comparative overview. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2005) 2(4):465–73. 10.1093/ecam/neh140 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

7 Keniger L Gaston K Irvine K Fuller R What are the benefits of interacting with nature? Int J Environ Res Public Health (2013) 10:913–35. 10.3390/ijerph10030913 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

8 Barton J Rogerson M The importance of greenspace for mental health. BJPsych Int (2017) 14(4):79–81. 10.1192/S2056474000002051 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

9 Tasnim N Abulizi N Pither J Hart MM Gibson DL Linking the gut microbial ecosystem with the environment: does gut health depend on where we live? Front Microbiol (2017) 8:1935. 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01935 29056933 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

10 Aerts R Honnay O Van Nieuwenhuyse A Biodiversity and human health: mechanisms and evidence of the positive health effects of diversity in nature and green spaces. Br Med Bull (2018) 127(1):5–22. 10.1093/bmb/ldy021 30007287 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

11 Nan J Ho R Effects of clay art therapy on adults outpatients with major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. J Affect Disord (2017) 217:237–45. 10.1016/j.jad.2017.04.013 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

12 Dadvand P Tischer C Estarlich M Llop S Dalmau-Bueno A López-Vicente M Lifelong residential exposure to green space and attention: a population-based prospective study. Environ Health Perspect (2017) 125(9):097016. 10.1289/EHP694 28934095 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

13 Wahrborg P Petersson I Grahn P Nature-assisted rehabilitation for reactions to severe stress and/or depression in a rehabilitation garden: long-term follow-up including comparisons with a matched population-based reference cohort. J Rehabil Med (2014) 46(3):271–6. 10.2340/16501977-1259 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

14 Vujcic M Tomicevic-Dubljevic J Grbic M Lecic-Tosevski D Vukovic O Toskovic O Nature based solution for improving mental health and well-being in urban areas. Environ Res (2017) 158:385–92. 10.1016/j.envres.2017.06.030 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

15 Detweiler MB Self JA Lane S Spencer L Lutgens B Kim DY Horticultural therapy: a pilot study on modulating cortisol levels and indices of substance craving, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and quality of life in veterans. Altern Ther Health Med (2015) 21(4):36–41.

94 references, page 1 of 7
Abstract
Humans are intimately connected to nature, and our physical and mental health is influenced strongly by our environment. The “elements,” classically described in humoral theory as Fire, Water, Earth, and Air, all may impact our mental health. In a contemporary sense, these elements reflect a range of modifiable factors: UV light or heat therapy (Fire); sauna, hydrotherapy, and balneotherapy (Water); nature-based exposure therapy and horticulture (Earth); oxygen-rich/clean air exposure; and breathing techniques (Air). This theoretical scoping review paper details the emerging evidence for a range of these elements, covering epidemiological and interventional data...
Subjects
free text keywords: lifestyle, mental health, mood, anxiety, psychological, well-being, Psychiatry, RC435-571, Review, nature, lifestyle medicine, Psychiatry and Mental health, Applied psychology, Psychological intervention, Art therapy, medicine.medical_specialty, medicine, Psychology, Balneotherapy, medicine.medical_treatment, Hydrotherapy, Exposure therapy, Breathing exercises, Classical element
94 references, page 1 of 7

1 Logan AC Selhub EM Vis Medicatrix naturae: does nature “minister to the mind”? Biopsychosoc Med (2012) 6(1):11. 10.1186/1751-0759-6-11 22472137 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

2 Hidaka B Depression as a disease of modernity: explanations for increasing prevalence. J Affect Dis ord (2012) 140(3):205–14. 10.1016/j.jad.2011.12.036 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

3 Roberts M Modernity, mental illness and the crisis of meaning. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs (2007) 14(3):277–81. 10.1111/j.1365-2850.2007.01074.x [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

4 Logan AC Katzman MA Balanzá-Martínez V Natural environments, ancestral diets, and microbial ecology: is there a modern “paleo-deficit disorder”? Part I J Physiol Anthropol (2015) 34:1. 10.1186/s40101-015-0041-y 25636731 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

5 Stelmack R Stalikas A Galen and the humour theory of temperament. Pers Individ Dif (1991) 12(3):255–63. 10.1016/0191-8869(91)90111-N [DOI]

6 Patwardhan B Warude D Pushpangadan P Bhatt N Ayurveda and traditional Chinese medicine: a comparative overview. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2005) 2(4):465–73. 10.1093/ecam/neh140 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

7 Keniger L Gaston K Irvine K Fuller R What are the benefits of interacting with nature? Int J Environ Res Public Health (2013) 10:913–35. 10.3390/ijerph10030913 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

8 Barton J Rogerson M The importance of greenspace for mental health. BJPsych Int (2017) 14(4):79–81. 10.1192/S2056474000002051 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

9 Tasnim N Abulizi N Pither J Hart MM Gibson DL Linking the gut microbial ecosystem with the environment: does gut health depend on where we live? Front Microbiol (2017) 8:1935. 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01935 29056933 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

10 Aerts R Honnay O Van Nieuwenhuyse A Biodiversity and human health: mechanisms and evidence of the positive health effects of diversity in nature and green spaces. Br Med Bull (2018) 127(1):5–22. 10.1093/bmb/ldy021 30007287 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

11 Nan J Ho R Effects of clay art therapy on adults outpatients with major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. J Affect Disord (2017) 217:237–45. 10.1016/j.jad.2017.04.013 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

12 Dadvand P Tischer C Estarlich M Llop S Dalmau-Bueno A López-Vicente M Lifelong residential exposure to green space and attention: a population-based prospective study. Environ Health Perspect (2017) 125(9):097016. 10.1289/EHP694 28934095 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

13 Wahrborg P Petersson I Grahn P Nature-assisted rehabilitation for reactions to severe stress and/or depression in a rehabilitation garden: long-term follow-up including comparisons with a matched population-based reference cohort. J Rehabil Med (2014) 46(3):271–6. 10.2340/16501977-1259 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

14 Vujcic M Tomicevic-Dubljevic J Grbic M Lecic-Tosevski D Vukovic O Toskovic O Nature based solution for improving mental health and well-being in urban areas. Environ Res (2017) 158:385–92. 10.1016/j.envres.2017.06.030 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

15 Detweiler MB Self JA Lane S Spencer L Lutgens B Kim DY Horticultural therapy: a pilot study on modulating cortisol levels and indices of substance craving, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and quality of life in veterans. Altern Ther Health Med (2015) 21(4):36–41.

94 references, page 1 of 7
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