publication . Article . 2011

Wine and Grape Tannin Interactions with Salivary Proteins and Their Impact on Astringency: A Review of Current Research

Jacqui M. McRae; James A. Kennedy;
Open Access English
  • Published: 01 Mar 2011 Journal: Molecules, volume 16, issue 3, pages 2,348-2,364 (issn: 1420-3049, Copyright policy)
  • Publisher: MDPI AG
Abstract
Astringency is an important characteristic of red wine quality. The sensation is generally thought to be produced by the interaction of wine tannins with salivary proteins and the subsequent aggregation and precipitation of protein-tannin complexes. The importance of wine astringency for marketability has led to a wealth of research on the causes of astringency and how tannins impact the quality of the sensation, particularly with respect to tannin structure. Ultimately, the understanding of how tannin structure impacts astringency will allow the controlled manipulation of tannins via such methods as micro-oxygenation or fining to improve the quality of wines.
Persistent Identifiers
Subjects
Medical Subject Headings: food and beveragesdigestive, oral, and skin physiology
free text keywords: astringency, condensed tannin, salivary proteins, wine, Organic Chemistry, Review, lcsh:Organic chemistry, lcsh:QD241-441, Food science, Chemistry, chemistry.chemical_classification, Tannin
125 references, page 1 of 9

Lee, C.B., Lawless, H.T.. Time-course of astringent sensations. Chem. Senses. 1991; 16: 225-238 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

Kennedy, J.A., Saucier, C., Glories, Y.. Grape and wine phenolics: History and perspective. Am. J. Enol. Viticult.. 2006; 57: 239-248

Mercurio, M.D., Smith, P.A.. Tannin quantification in red grapes and wine: Comparison of polysaccharide- and protein-based tannin precipitation techniques and their ability to model wine astringency. J. Agric. Food Chem.. 2008; 56: 5528-5537 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Mercurio, M.D., Dambergs, R.G., Cozzolino, D., Herderich, M.J., Smith, P.A.. Relationship between red wine grades and phenolics. 1. Tannin and total phenolics concentrations. J. Agric. Food Chem.. 2010; 58: 12313-12319 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Gawel, R., Iland, P.G., Francis, I.L.. Characterizing the astringency of red wine: A case study. Food Qual. Prefer.. 2001; 12: 83-94 [DOI]

Kallithraka, S., Bakker, J., Clifford, M.N., Vallis, L.. Correlations between saliva protein composition and some T-I parameters of astringency. Food Qual. Prefer.. 2001; 12: 145-152 [DOI]

Kallithraka, S., Bakker, J., Clifford, M.N.. Evaluation of bitterness and astringency of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin in red wine and in model solution. J. Sens. Stud.. 1997; 12: 25-37 [DOI]

Demiglio, P., Pickering, G.J.. The influence of ethanol and pH on the taste and mouthfeel sensations elicited by red wine. J. Food Agric. Environ.. 2008; 6: 143-150

Gawel, R., Oberholster, A., Francis, I.L.. A 'mouth-feel wheel': terminology for communicating the mouth-feel characteristics of red wine. Aust. J. Grape Wine Res.. 2000; 6: 203-207 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

Kennedy, J.A.. Grape and wine phenolics: Observations and recent findings. Cienc. Invest. Agrar.. 2008; 35: 107-120 [OpenAIRE]

Boselli, E., Boulton, R.B., Thorngate, J.H., Frega, N.G.. Chemical and sensory characterization of doc red wines from Marche (Italy) related to vintage and grape cultivars. J. Agric. Food Chem.. 2004; 52: 3843-3854 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Landon, J.L., Weller, K., Harbertson, J.F., Ross, C.F.. Chemical and sensory evaluation of astringency in Washington state red wines. Am. J. Enol. Viticult.. 2008; 59: 153-158

Charlton, A., Baxter, N., Khan, M., Moir, A., Haslam, E., Davies, A., Williamson, M.. Polyphenol/peptide binding and precipitation. J. Agric. Food Chem.. 2002; 50: 1593-1601 [PubMed]

Dinnella, C., Recchia, A., Fia, G., Bertuccioli, M., Monteleone, E.. Saliva characteristics and individual sensitivity to phenolic astringent stimuli. Chem. Senses. 2009; 34: 295-304 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Haslam, E.. Natural polyphenols (vegetable tannins) as drugs: Possible modes of action. J. Nat. Prod.. 1996; 59: 205-215 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

125 references, page 1 of 9
Abstract
Astringency is an important characteristic of red wine quality. The sensation is generally thought to be produced by the interaction of wine tannins with salivary proteins and the subsequent aggregation and precipitation of protein-tannin complexes. The importance of wine astringency for marketability has led to a wealth of research on the causes of astringency and how tannins impact the quality of the sensation, particularly with respect to tannin structure. Ultimately, the understanding of how tannin structure impacts astringency will allow the controlled manipulation of tannins via such methods as micro-oxygenation or fining to improve the quality of wines.
Persistent Identifiers
Subjects
Medical Subject Headings: food and beveragesdigestive, oral, and skin physiology
free text keywords: astringency, condensed tannin, salivary proteins, wine, Organic Chemistry, Review, lcsh:Organic chemistry, lcsh:QD241-441, Food science, Chemistry, chemistry.chemical_classification, Tannin
125 references, page 1 of 9

Lee, C.B., Lawless, H.T.. Time-course of astringent sensations. Chem. Senses. 1991; 16: 225-238 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

Kennedy, J.A., Saucier, C., Glories, Y.. Grape and wine phenolics: History and perspective. Am. J. Enol. Viticult.. 2006; 57: 239-248

Mercurio, M.D., Smith, P.A.. Tannin quantification in red grapes and wine: Comparison of polysaccharide- and protein-based tannin precipitation techniques and their ability to model wine astringency. J. Agric. Food Chem.. 2008; 56: 5528-5537 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Mercurio, M.D., Dambergs, R.G., Cozzolino, D., Herderich, M.J., Smith, P.A.. Relationship between red wine grades and phenolics. 1. Tannin and total phenolics concentrations. J. Agric. Food Chem.. 2010; 58: 12313-12319 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Gawel, R., Iland, P.G., Francis, I.L.. Characterizing the astringency of red wine: A case study. Food Qual. Prefer.. 2001; 12: 83-94 [DOI]

Kallithraka, S., Bakker, J., Clifford, M.N., Vallis, L.. Correlations between saliva protein composition and some T-I parameters of astringency. Food Qual. Prefer.. 2001; 12: 145-152 [DOI]

Kallithraka, S., Bakker, J., Clifford, M.N.. Evaluation of bitterness and astringency of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin in red wine and in model solution. J. Sens. Stud.. 1997; 12: 25-37 [DOI]

Demiglio, P., Pickering, G.J.. The influence of ethanol and pH on the taste and mouthfeel sensations elicited by red wine. J. Food Agric. Environ.. 2008; 6: 143-150

Gawel, R., Oberholster, A., Francis, I.L.. A 'mouth-feel wheel': terminology for communicating the mouth-feel characteristics of red wine. Aust. J. Grape Wine Res.. 2000; 6: 203-207 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

Kennedy, J.A.. Grape and wine phenolics: Observations and recent findings. Cienc. Invest. Agrar.. 2008; 35: 107-120 [OpenAIRE]

Boselli, E., Boulton, R.B., Thorngate, J.H., Frega, N.G.. Chemical and sensory characterization of doc red wines from Marche (Italy) related to vintage and grape cultivars. J. Agric. Food Chem.. 2004; 52: 3843-3854 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Landon, J.L., Weller, K., Harbertson, J.F., Ross, C.F.. Chemical and sensory evaluation of astringency in Washington state red wines. Am. J. Enol. Viticult.. 2008; 59: 153-158

Charlton, A., Baxter, N., Khan, M., Moir, A., Haslam, E., Davies, A., Williamson, M.. Polyphenol/peptide binding and precipitation. J. Agric. Food Chem.. 2002; 50: 1593-1601 [PubMed]

Dinnella, C., Recchia, A., Fia, G., Bertuccioli, M., Monteleone, E.. Saliva characteristics and individual sensitivity to phenolic astringent stimuli. Chem. Senses. 2009; 34: 295-304 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Haslam, E.. Natural polyphenols (vegetable tannins) as drugs: Possible modes of action. J. Nat. Prod.. 1996; 59: 205-215 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

125 references, page 1 of 9
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