Translating Developmental Principles to Generate Human Gastric Organoids
Eicher, Alexandra K.
Berns, H. Matthew
Wells, James M.
- Publisher: Elsevier
Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology,
(issn: 2352-345X, eissn: 2352-345X)
Diseases of the digestive system. Gastroenterology | Directed Differentiation | Endoderm | PSC, pluripotent stem cell | Pluripotent Stem Cells | Organoids | GI, gastrointestinal | BMP, bone morphogenetic protein | Gastric Development | hPSC, human pluripotent stem cell | Shh, Sonic hedgehog | ENS, enteric nervous system | HGO, human gastric organoid | RC799-869 | Review | e, embryonic day | 3-D, 3-dimensional | ENCC, enteric neural crest cell | HDGC, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer | ECL, enterochromaffin-like
mesheuropmc: digestive, oral, and skin physiology
Gastric diseases, including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, are highly prevalent in human beings. Despite this, the cellular biology of the stomach remains poorly understood relative to other gastrointestinal organs such as the liver, intestine, and colon. In particular, little is known about the molecular basis of stomach development and the differentiation of gastric lineages. Although animal models are useful for studying gastric development, function, and disease, there are major structural and physiological differences in human stomachs that render these models insufficient. To look at gastric development, function, and disease in a human context, a model system of the human stomach is imperative. This review details how this was achieved through the directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells in a 3-dimensional environment into human gastric organoids (HGOs). Similar to previous work that has generated human intestine, colon, and lung tissue in vitro, HGOs were generated in vitro through a step-wise differentiation designed to mimic the temporal-spatial signaling dynamics that control stomach development in vivo. HGOs can be used for a variety of purposes, including genetic modeling, drug screening, and potentially even in future patient transplantation. Moreover, HGOs are well suited to study the development and interactions of nonepithelial cell types, such as endothelial, neuronal, and mesenchymal, which remain almost completely unstudied. This review discusses the basics of stomach morphology, function, and developmental pathways involved in generating HGOs. We also highlight important gaps in our understanding of how epithelial and mesenchymal interactions are essential for the development and overall function of the human stomach.