publication . Article . Other literature type . 2018

Process Design Aspects for Scandium-Selective Leaching of Bauxite Residue with Sulfuric Acid

Konstantinos Hatzilyberis; Theopisti Lymperopoulou; Lamprini-Areti Tsakanika; Klaus-Michael Ochsenkühn; Paraskevas Georgiou; Nikolaos Defteraios; Fotios Tsopelas; Maria Ochsenkühn-Petropoulou;
Open Access English
  • Published: 25 Feb 2018 Journal: Minerals, volume 8, issue 3, page 79 (eissn: 2075-163X, Copyright policy)
  • Publisher: MDPI AG
Abstract
Aiming at the industrial scale development of a Scandium (Sc)-selective leaching process of Bauxite Residue (BR), a set of process design aspects has been investigated. The interpretation of experimental data for Sc leaching yield, with sulfuric acid as the leaching solvent, has shown significant impact from acid feed concentration, mixing time, liquid to solids ratio (L/S), and number of cycles of leachate re-usage onto fresh BR. The thin film diffusion model, as the fundamental theory for leaching, either with constant particle size for selective leaching, or with shrinking particle size for less- or non-selective leaching, interprets the relevant experimental...
Persistent Identifiers
Subjects
free text keywords: REEs, bauxite residue, process design aspects, thin film diffusion model, unyielding core, specific recovery, REE, Bauxite, engineering.material, engineering, Particle size, Materials science, Diffusion (business), Sulfuric acid, chemistry.chemical_compound, chemistry, Selective leaching, Chemical engineering, Chemical reaction, Scandium, chemistry.chemical_element, Leaching (agriculture), lcsh:Mineralogy, lcsh:QE351-399.2
Funded by
EC| SCALE
Project
SCALE
Production of Scandium compounds and Scandium Aluminum alloys from European metallurgical by- products
  • Funder: European Commission (EC)
  • Project Code: 730105
  • Funding stream: H2020 | RIA
Validated by funder
Communities
SDSN - GreeceSustainable Development Projects: Production of Scandium compounds and Scandium Aluminum alloys from European metallurgical by- products
38 references, page 1 of 3

4. UC RUSAL Sustainability Report 2016. Scientific and Technological Development. Available online: http: //sr.rusal.com/company-management-system/scientific-and-technical-development.php (accessed on 23 January 2018).

5. Project SCALE: Production of Scandium Compounds and Scandium Aluminum Alloys from European Metallurgical by-Products. European Community's Horizon 2020 Programme. Available online: http: //cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/206331_en.html (accessed on 23 January 2018).

6. Slipenyuk, A.; Lotsko, D.; Milman, Y.; Kuprin, V.; Yefimov, M.; Danylenko, M. Influence of Scandium on Amorphization of Aluminum Alloys. In Metallic Materials with High Structural Efficiency. NATO Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry; Senkov, O.N., Miracle, D.B., Firstov, S.A., Eds.; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2004; Volume 146. [CrossRef]

7. Røyset, J.; Ryum, N. Scandium in aluminium alloys. Int. Mater. Rev. 2005, 50, 19-44. [CrossRef]

8. Riva, S.; Yusenko, K.V.; Lavery, N.P.; Jarvis, D.J.; Brown, S.G.R. The scandium effect in multicomponent alloys. Int. Mater. Rev. 2016, 61, 203-228. [CrossRef] [OpenAIRE]

9. Awd, M.; Tenkamp, J.; Hirtler, M.; Siddique, S.H.; Bambach, M.; Walther, F. Comparison of microstructure and mechanical properties of scalmalloy® produced by selective laser melting and laser metal deposition. Materials 2018, 11, 17. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10. Wang, W.; Pranolo, Y.; Cheng, C.Y. Metallurgical processes for scandium recovery from various resources: A review. Hydrometallurgy 2011, 108, 100-108. [CrossRef]

11. European Commission: Critical Raw Materials. Third List of Critical Raw Materials for the EU of 2017. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/growth/sectors/raw-materials/specific-interest/critical_en (accessed on 26 January 2018).

12. U.S. Geological Survey. Mineral Commodity Summaries, SCANDIUM. January 2016. Available online: https://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/scandium/mcs-2016-scand.pdf (accessed on 23 January 2018).

13. Tomilo, Z.M.; Molchan, P.V.; Shestak, A.S.; Finskaya, V.M.; Prytkova, N.A.; Ustinovich, S.N. Influence of annealing on the superconductivity of ScNi2B2C. Phys. C Supercond. 2001, 361, 95-98. [CrossRef]

14. Geissler, U.; Thomas, S.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Lang, K.-D. Aluminum-scandium: A material for semiconductor packaging. J. Electr. Mater. 2016, 45, 5456-5467. [CrossRef]

15. Schmidtke, K.; Palma, F.; Hawkins, A.; Emmelmann, C. Process and mechanical properties: Applicability of a scandium modified al-alloy for laser additive manufacturing. Phys. Procedia 2011, 12, 369-374. [CrossRef] [OpenAIRE]

16. Schoop, U.; Goharkhay, K.; Klimscha, J.; Zagler, M.; Wernisch, J.; Georgopoulos, A.; Sperr, W.; Moritz, A. The use of the erbium, chromium: Yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser in endodontic treatment: The results of an in vitro study. J. Am. Dent Assoc. 2007, 138, 949-955. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17. Scandium Investing. Why Scandium Could Be a Huge Opportunity: Commercially Viable Scandium Deposits Are Rare, but There Is Indeed Opportunity in this Market. Investing News Network. 12 April 2017. Available online: http://investingnews.com/daily/resource-investing/critical-metals-investing/scandiuminvesting/scandium-production-the-problem-and-the-opportunity/ (accessed on 23 January 2018).

18. Zhang, B.; Xue, X.; Huang, X.; Yang, H.; Han, J. Study on Leaching Valuable Elements from Bayan Obo Tailings. In Proceedings of the 3rd Pan American Materials Congress; The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series; Meyers, M.A., Benavides, H.A.C., Brühl, S.P., Colorado, H.A., Dalgaard, E., Elias, C.N., Figueiredo, R.B., Garcia-Rincon, O., Kawasaki, M., Langdon, T.G., et al., Eds.; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2017. [CrossRef]

38 references, page 1 of 3
Abstract
Aiming at the industrial scale development of a Scandium (Sc)-selective leaching process of Bauxite Residue (BR), a set of process design aspects has been investigated. The interpretation of experimental data for Sc leaching yield, with sulfuric acid as the leaching solvent, has shown significant impact from acid feed concentration, mixing time, liquid to solids ratio (L/S), and number of cycles of leachate re-usage onto fresh BR. The thin film diffusion model, as the fundamental theory for leaching, either with constant particle size for selective leaching, or with shrinking particle size for less- or non-selective leaching, interprets the relevant experimental...
Persistent Identifiers
Subjects
free text keywords: REEs, bauxite residue, process design aspects, thin film diffusion model, unyielding core, specific recovery, REE, Bauxite, engineering.material, engineering, Particle size, Materials science, Diffusion (business), Sulfuric acid, chemistry.chemical_compound, chemistry, Selective leaching, Chemical engineering, Chemical reaction, Scandium, chemistry.chemical_element, Leaching (agriculture), lcsh:Mineralogy, lcsh:QE351-399.2
Funded by
EC| SCALE
Project
SCALE
Production of Scandium compounds and Scandium Aluminum alloys from European metallurgical by- products
  • Funder: European Commission (EC)
  • Project Code: 730105
  • Funding stream: H2020 | RIA
Validated by funder
Communities
SDSN - GreeceSustainable Development Projects: Production of Scandium compounds and Scandium Aluminum alloys from European metallurgical by- products
38 references, page 1 of 3

4. UC RUSAL Sustainability Report 2016. Scientific and Technological Development. Available online: http: //sr.rusal.com/company-management-system/scientific-and-technical-development.php (accessed on 23 January 2018).

5. Project SCALE: Production of Scandium Compounds and Scandium Aluminum Alloys from European Metallurgical by-Products. European Community's Horizon 2020 Programme. Available online: http: //cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/206331_en.html (accessed on 23 January 2018).

6. Slipenyuk, A.; Lotsko, D.; Milman, Y.; Kuprin, V.; Yefimov, M.; Danylenko, M. Influence of Scandium on Amorphization of Aluminum Alloys. In Metallic Materials with High Structural Efficiency. NATO Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry; Senkov, O.N., Miracle, D.B., Firstov, S.A., Eds.; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2004; Volume 146. [CrossRef]

7. Røyset, J.; Ryum, N. Scandium in aluminium alloys. Int. Mater. Rev. 2005, 50, 19-44. [CrossRef]

8. Riva, S.; Yusenko, K.V.; Lavery, N.P.; Jarvis, D.J.; Brown, S.G.R. The scandium effect in multicomponent alloys. Int. Mater. Rev. 2016, 61, 203-228. [CrossRef] [OpenAIRE]

9. Awd, M.; Tenkamp, J.; Hirtler, M.; Siddique, S.H.; Bambach, M.; Walther, F. Comparison of microstructure and mechanical properties of scalmalloy® produced by selective laser melting and laser metal deposition. Materials 2018, 11, 17. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10. Wang, W.; Pranolo, Y.; Cheng, C.Y. Metallurgical processes for scandium recovery from various resources: A review. Hydrometallurgy 2011, 108, 100-108. [CrossRef]

11. European Commission: Critical Raw Materials. Third List of Critical Raw Materials for the EU of 2017. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/growth/sectors/raw-materials/specific-interest/critical_en (accessed on 26 January 2018).

12. U.S. Geological Survey. Mineral Commodity Summaries, SCANDIUM. January 2016. Available online: https://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/scandium/mcs-2016-scand.pdf (accessed on 23 January 2018).

13. Tomilo, Z.M.; Molchan, P.V.; Shestak, A.S.; Finskaya, V.M.; Prytkova, N.A.; Ustinovich, S.N. Influence of annealing on the superconductivity of ScNi2B2C. Phys. C Supercond. 2001, 361, 95-98. [CrossRef]

14. Geissler, U.; Thomas, S.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Lang, K.-D. Aluminum-scandium: A material for semiconductor packaging. J. Electr. Mater. 2016, 45, 5456-5467. [CrossRef]

15. Schmidtke, K.; Palma, F.; Hawkins, A.; Emmelmann, C. Process and mechanical properties: Applicability of a scandium modified al-alloy for laser additive manufacturing. Phys. Procedia 2011, 12, 369-374. [CrossRef] [OpenAIRE]

16. Schoop, U.; Goharkhay, K.; Klimscha, J.; Zagler, M.; Wernisch, J.; Georgopoulos, A.; Sperr, W.; Moritz, A. The use of the erbium, chromium: Yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser in endodontic treatment: The results of an in vitro study. J. Am. Dent Assoc. 2007, 138, 949-955. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17. Scandium Investing. Why Scandium Could Be a Huge Opportunity: Commercially Viable Scandium Deposits Are Rare, but There Is Indeed Opportunity in this Market. Investing News Network. 12 April 2017. Available online: http://investingnews.com/daily/resource-investing/critical-metals-investing/scandiuminvesting/scandium-production-the-problem-and-the-opportunity/ (accessed on 23 January 2018).

18. Zhang, B.; Xue, X.; Huang, X.; Yang, H.; Han, J. Study on Leaching Valuable Elements from Bayan Obo Tailings. In Proceedings of the 3rd Pan American Materials Congress; The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series; Meyers, M.A., Benavides, H.A.C., Brühl, S.P., Colorado, H.A., Dalgaard, E., Elias, C.N., Figueiredo, R.B., Garcia-Rincon, O., Kawasaki, M., Langdon, T.G., et al., Eds.; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2017. [CrossRef]

38 references, page 1 of 3
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