publication . Article . 2017

Effects of Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Cardiovascular Mortality: The Importance of the Dose of DHA

Barbara J Meyer; Renate H M de Groot;
Open Access English
  • Published: 30 Nov 2017
  • Country: Netherlands
Abstract
Recent evidence on the relationship between omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation and cardiovascular health suggests that n-3 LCPUFA may no longer be efficacious. This review summarises the randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assess the effect of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on cardiovascular mortality. It appears that in the RCTs that showed no effect of n-3 LCPUFA on cardiovascular mortality, the dose of n-3 LCPUFA (in particular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) and hence the n-3 LCPUFA status, may not have been sufficiently high to demonstrate the efficacy, and/or the baseline n-3 LCPUFA status was already too high. The inte...
Subjects
free text keywords: omega-3, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, cardiovascular disease, randomised controlled trials, dose of omega-3, omega-3 status, Nutrition. Foods and food supply, TX341-641, Review, Physiology, Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation, Docosahexaenoic acid, Drug, media_common.quotation_subject, media_common, Placebo, Diabetes mellitus, medicine.disease, medicine, Ceiling effect, Internal medicine, medicine.medical_specialty, business.industry, business, Polyunsaturated fatty acid, chemistry.chemical_classification, chemistry, Intervention trials, Endocrinology
45 references, page 1 of 3

Makrides, M., Gibson, R.A.. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid requirements during pregnancy and lactation. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.. 2000; 71: 307S-311S [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Sattar, N., Berry, C., Greer, I.A.. Essential fatty acids in relation to pregnancy complications and fetal development. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol.. 1998; 105: 1248-1255 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Meyer, B.J., Onyiaodike, C.C., Brown, E.A., Jordan, F., Murray, H., Nibbs, R.J., Sattar, N., Lyall, H., Nelson, S.M., Freeman, D.J.. Maternal plasma DHA levels increase prior to 29 days post-LH surge in women undergoing frozen embryo transfer: A prospective, observational study of human pregnancy. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.. 2016; 101: 1745-1753 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Richardson, A.J., Burton, J.R., Sewell, R.P., Spreckelsen, T.F., Montgomery, P.. Docosahexaenoic acid for reading, cognition and behavior in children aged 7–9 years: A randomized, controlled trial (the dolab study). PLoS ONE. 2012; 7 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Montgomery, P., Burton, J.R., Sewell, R.P., Spreckelsen, T.F., Richardson, A.J.. Low blood long chain omega-3 fatty acids in UK children are associated with poor cognitive performance and behavior: A cross-sectional analysis from the DOLAB study. PLoS ONE. 2013; 8 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Stonehouse, W.. Does consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA enhance cognitive performance in healthy school-aged children and throughout adulthood? Evidence from clinical trials. Nutrients. 2014; 6: 2730-2758 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Sinn, N., Milte, C.M., Street, S.J., Buckley, J.D., Coates, A.M., Petkov, J., Howe, P.R.. Effects of n-3 fatty acids, EPA v. DHA, on depressive symptoms, quality of life, memory and executive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: A 6-month randomised controlled trial. Br. J. Nutr.. 2012; 107: 1682-1693 [PubMed]

GISSI Prevezione Investigators. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin e after myocardial infarction: Results of the GISSI-prevenzione trial. Lancet. 1999; 354: 447-455 [PubMed]

Bang, H.O., Dyerberg, J., Sinclair, H.M.. The composition of the Eskimo food in north western Greenland. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.. 1980; 33: 2657-2661 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Dyerberg, J.B.H., Stoffersen, E., Moncada, S., Vane, J.R.. Eicosapentaenoic acid and prevention of thrombosis and atherosclerosis?. Lancet. 1978; 312: 117-119 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

Mozaffarian, D.. Jelis, fish oil, and cardiac events. Lancet. 2007; 369: 1062-1063 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Iso, H., Kobayashi, M., Ishihara, J., Sasaki, S., Okada, K., Kita, Y., Kokubo, Y., Shoichiro, T.. Intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among Japanese. Circulation. 2006; 113: 195-202 [PubMed]

Hibbeln, J.R., Nieminen, L.R.G., Blasbalg, T.L., Riggs, J.A., Lands, W.E.M.. Healthy intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids: Estimations considering worldwide diversity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.. 2006; 83 (Suppl. 6): 1483S-1493S [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Nakamura, Y., Ueshima, H., Okuda, N., Higashiyama, A., Kita, Y., Kadowaki, T., Okamura, T., Murakami, Y., Okayama, A., Choudhury, S.R.. Relation of dietary and other lifestyle traits to difference in serum adiponection concentration of Japanese in Japan and Hawaii: The interlipid study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.. 2008; 88: 424-430 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Calder, P.C.. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: Nutrition or pharmacology?. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol.. 2013; 75: 645-662 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

45 references, page 1 of 3
Abstract
Recent evidence on the relationship between omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation and cardiovascular health suggests that n-3 LCPUFA may no longer be efficacious. This review summarises the randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assess the effect of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on cardiovascular mortality. It appears that in the RCTs that showed no effect of n-3 LCPUFA on cardiovascular mortality, the dose of n-3 LCPUFA (in particular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) and hence the n-3 LCPUFA status, may not have been sufficiently high to demonstrate the efficacy, and/or the baseline n-3 LCPUFA status was already too high. The inte...
Subjects
free text keywords: omega-3, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, cardiovascular disease, randomised controlled trials, dose of omega-3, omega-3 status, Nutrition. Foods and food supply, TX341-641, Review, Physiology, Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation, Docosahexaenoic acid, Drug, media_common.quotation_subject, media_common, Placebo, Diabetes mellitus, medicine.disease, medicine, Ceiling effect, Internal medicine, medicine.medical_specialty, business.industry, business, Polyunsaturated fatty acid, chemistry.chemical_classification, chemistry, Intervention trials, Endocrinology
45 references, page 1 of 3

Makrides, M., Gibson, R.A.. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid requirements during pregnancy and lactation. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.. 2000; 71: 307S-311S [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Sattar, N., Berry, C., Greer, I.A.. Essential fatty acids in relation to pregnancy complications and fetal development. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol.. 1998; 105: 1248-1255 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Meyer, B.J., Onyiaodike, C.C., Brown, E.A., Jordan, F., Murray, H., Nibbs, R.J., Sattar, N., Lyall, H., Nelson, S.M., Freeman, D.J.. Maternal plasma DHA levels increase prior to 29 days post-LH surge in women undergoing frozen embryo transfer: A prospective, observational study of human pregnancy. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.. 2016; 101: 1745-1753 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Richardson, A.J., Burton, J.R., Sewell, R.P., Spreckelsen, T.F., Montgomery, P.. Docosahexaenoic acid for reading, cognition and behavior in children aged 7–9 years: A randomized, controlled trial (the dolab study). PLoS ONE. 2012; 7 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Montgomery, P., Burton, J.R., Sewell, R.P., Spreckelsen, T.F., Richardson, A.J.. Low blood long chain omega-3 fatty acids in UK children are associated with poor cognitive performance and behavior: A cross-sectional analysis from the DOLAB study. PLoS ONE. 2013; 8 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Stonehouse, W.. Does consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA enhance cognitive performance in healthy school-aged children and throughout adulthood? Evidence from clinical trials. Nutrients. 2014; 6: 2730-2758 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Sinn, N., Milte, C.M., Street, S.J., Buckley, J.D., Coates, A.M., Petkov, J., Howe, P.R.. Effects of n-3 fatty acids, EPA v. DHA, on depressive symptoms, quality of life, memory and executive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: A 6-month randomised controlled trial. Br. J. Nutr.. 2012; 107: 1682-1693 [PubMed]

GISSI Prevezione Investigators. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin e after myocardial infarction: Results of the GISSI-prevenzione trial. Lancet. 1999; 354: 447-455 [PubMed]

Bang, H.O., Dyerberg, J., Sinclair, H.M.. The composition of the Eskimo food in north western Greenland. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.. 1980; 33: 2657-2661 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Dyerberg, J.B.H., Stoffersen, E., Moncada, S., Vane, J.R.. Eicosapentaenoic acid and prevention of thrombosis and atherosclerosis?. Lancet. 1978; 312: 117-119 [OpenAIRE] [DOI]

Mozaffarian, D.. Jelis, fish oil, and cardiac events. Lancet. 2007; 369: 1062-1063 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Iso, H., Kobayashi, M., Ishihara, J., Sasaki, S., Okada, K., Kita, Y., Kokubo, Y., Shoichiro, T.. Intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among Japanese. Circulation. 2006; 113: 195-202 [PubMed]

Hibbeln, J.R., Nieminen, L.R.G., Blasbalg, T.L., Riggs, J.A., Lands, W.E.M.. Healthy intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids: Estimations considering worldwide diversity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.. 2006; 83 (Suppl. 6): 1483S-1493S [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Nakamura, Y., Ueshima, H., Okuda, N., Higashiyama, A., Kita, Y., Kadowaki, T., Okamura, T., Murakami, Y., Okayama, A., Choudhury, S.R.. Relation of dietary and other lifestyle traits to difference in serum adiponection concentration of Japanese in Japan and Hawaii: The interlipid study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.. 2008; 88: 424-430 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Calder, P.C.. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: Nutrition or pharmacology?. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol.. 2013; 75: 645-662 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

45 references, page 1 of 3
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