Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in infants and children
- Publisher: Serbian Medical Society
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo
(issn: 0370-8179, eissn: 2406-0895)
Clostridium difficile | diarrhea | children | epidemiology | treatment | Medicine | R
Clostridium difficile (CD) is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea in adults with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The epidemiology of CD infection (CDI) has changed in the last few decades associated with increasing severity of the infection rate related to the occurrence of NAP1 hypervirulent strain and the emergence of the disease among ambulatory patients and the wider community. Although little is known about CDI in pediatric patients, CD is surprisingly recognized as an important pathogen in children. In this review article, we direct attention to the recent findings on the incidence and epidemiology of pediatric CDI, including the risk factors for infection, with special emphasis on the importance of CDI in infants and a population of children suffering from chronic gastrointestinal diseases or cancer. Despite recent pharmacotherapeutic protocols successfully used in children with CDI, we would like to draw attention to precautionary and preventive measures in terms of both unnecessary testing and uncritical use of antibiotics as the most important risk factors.