publication . Article . 2010

PREDICTION OF AEROSOL HAZARDS ARISING FROM THE OPENING OF AN ANTHRAX-TAINTED LETTER IN AN OPEN OFFICE ENVIRONMENT USING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

FUE-SANG LIEN; HUA JI; EUGENE YEE; BILL KOURNIKAKIS;
Open Access English
  • Published: 01 Sep 2010 Journal: Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (issn: 1823-4690, Copyright policy)
  • Publisher: Taylor's University
Abstract
Early experimental work, conducted at Defence R&D Canada–Suffield, measured and characterized the personal and environmental contamination associated with simulated anthrax-tainted letters under a number of different scenarios in order to obtain a better understanding of the physical and biological processes for detecting, assessing, and formulating potential mitigation strategies for managing the risks associated with opening an anthrax-tainted letter. These experimental investigations have been extended in the present study to simulate numerically the contamination from the opening of anthrax-tainted letters in an open office environment using computational fl...
Subjects
Medical Subject Headings: fungi
free text keywords: Anthrax-tainted letters, Computational fluid dynamics, Indoor dispersion, Open office environment, Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General), TA1-2040, Technology (General), T1-995
22 references, page 1 of 2

de Armond, P. (2002). The anthrax letters. Albion Monitor, http://www.monitor.net/monitor/0208a/anthrax.html.

(2001). Risk assessment of anthrax threat letters. Defence Research Establishment Suffield, DRES TR-2001-048.

Duncan, S.; Kournikakis, B.; and Ho, J. (2009). Pulmonary deposition of aerosolized Bacillus atropheus (BG) in an awake, unrestrained swine model due to exposure from a simulated anthrax letter incident. Inhalation Toxicology, 21(2), 141-152.

Kournikakis, B.; Walker, M.; Ho, J.; and Duncan, S. (2009). Statistical analysis of bacterial spore aerosols created by opening a spore containing “Anthrax Letter” in an office. Journal of Aerosol Science, 40(6), 514-522. [OpenAIRE]

5. Kournikakis, B.; Ho, J.; and Duncan, S. (2010). Anthrax letters: personal exposure, building contamination and effectiveness of immediate mitigation measures. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 7(2), 71-79.

6. Price, P.N.; Sohn, M.D.; Lacommare, K.S.H.; and Mcwilliams, J.A. (2009). Framework for evaluating anthrax risk in buildings. Environmental Science and Technology, 43(6), 1783-1787.

7. Reshetin, V.P.; and Regens, D. (2004). Evaluation of malignant anthrax spore dispersion in high-rise buildings. Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, 77(6), 1155-1166.

8. Lien, F.S.; and Leschziner, M.A. (1994). A general non-orthogonal collocated finite volume algorithm for turbulent flow at all speeds incorporating second-moment closure, Part 1: Computational implementation. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 114 (1-2), 123-148.

9. Lien, F.S.; and Leschziner, M.A. (1994). Upstream monotonic interpolation for scalar transport with application in complex turbulent flows. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 19(6), 527-548. [OpenAIRE]

10. Leonard, B.P. (1979). A stable and accurate convection modelling procedure based on quadratic upstream interpolation. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 19(1), 59-98.

11. Patankar, S.V. (1980). Numerical heat transfer and fluid flow. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.

12. Stone, H.L. (1968). Iterative solution of implicit approximations of multidimensional partial differential equations. SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis, 5(3), 530-558.

13. Rhie, C.M.; and Chow, W.L. (1983). A numerical study of the turbulent flow past an isolated airfoil with trailing edge separation. AIAA Journal, 21(11), 1525-1532. [OpenAIRE]

14. Aftosmis, M.J.; Berger, M.J.; and Melton, J.E. (1998). Robust and efficient cartesian mesh generation for component based geometry. AIAA Journal, 36(6), 952-960.

15. Peskin, C.S. (1977). Numerical analysis of blood flow in the heart, Journal of Computational Physics, 25(3), 220-252. [OpenAIRE]

22 references, page 1 of 2
Abstract
Early experimental work, conducted at Defence R&D Canada–Suffield, measured and characterized the personal and environmental contamination associated with simulated anthrax-tainted letters under a number of different scenarios in order to obtain a better understanding of the physical and biological processes for detecting, assessing, and formulating potential mitigation strategies for managing the risks associated with opening an anthrax-tainted letter. These experimental investigations have been extended in the present study to simulate numerically the contamination from the opening of anthrax-tainted letters in an open office environment using computational fl...
Subjects
Medical Subject Headings: fungi
free text keywords: Anthrax-tainted letters, Computational fluid dynamics, Indoor dispersion, Open office environment, Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General), TA1-2040, Technology (General), T1-995
22 references, page 1 of 2

de Armond, P. (2002). The anthrax letters. Albion Monitor, http://www.monitor.net/monitor/0208a/anthrax.html.

(2001). Risk assessment of anthrax threat letters. Defence Research Establishment Suffield, DRES TR-2001-048.

Duncan, S.; Kournikakis, B.; and Ho, J. (2009). Pulmonary deposition of aerosolized Bacillus atropheus (BG) in an awake, unrestrained swine model due to exposure from a simulated anthrax letter incident. Inhalation Toxicology, 21(2), 141-152.

Kournikakis, B.; Walker, M.; Ho, J.; and Duncan, S. (2009). Statistical analysis of bacterial spore aerosols created by opening a spore containing “Anthrax Letter” in an office. Journal of Aerosol Science, 40(6), 514-522. [OpenAIRE]

5. Kournikakis, B.; Ho, J.; and Duncan, S. (2010). Anthrax letters: personal exposure, building contamination and effectiveness of immediate mitigation measures. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 7(2), 71-79.

6. Price, P.N.; Sohn, M.D.; Lacommare, K.S.H.; and Mcwilliams, J.A. (2009). Framework for evaluating anthrax risk in buildings. Environmental Science and Technology, 43(6), 1783-1787.

7. Reshetin, V.P.; and Regens, D. (2004). Evaluation of malignant anthrax spore dispersion in high-rise buildings. Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, 77(6), 1155-1166.

8. Lien, F.S.; and Leschziner, M.A. (1994). A general non-orthogonal collocated finite volume algorithm for turbulent flow at all speeds incorporating second-moment closure, Part 1: Computational implementation. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 114 (1-2), 123-148.

9. Lien, F.S.; and Leschziner, M.A. (1994). Upstream monotonic interpolation for scalar transport with application in complex turbulent flows. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 19(6), 527-548. [OpenAIRE]

10. Leonard, B.P. (1979). A stable and accurate convection modelling procedure based on quadratic upstream interpolation. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 19(1), 59-98.

11. Patankar, S.V. (1980). Numerical heat transfer and fluid flow. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.

12. Stone, H.L. (1968). Iterative solution of implicit approximations of multidimensional partial differential equations. SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis, 5(3), 530-558.

13. Rhie, C.M.; and Chow, W.L. (1983). A numerical study of the turbulent flow past an isolated airfoil with trailing edge separation. AIAA Journal, 21(11), 1525-1532. [OpenAIRE]

14. Aftosmis, M.J.; Berger, M.J.; and Melton, J.E. (1998). Robust and efficient cartesian mesh generation for component based geometry. AIAA Journal, 36(6), 952-960.

15. Peskin, C.S. (1977). Numerical analysis of blood flow in the heart, Journal of Computational Physics, 25(3), 220-252. [OpenAIRE]

22 references, page 1 of 2
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