Periodontitis and increase in circulating oxidative stress

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Takaaki Tomofuji ; Koichiro Irie ; Toshihiro Sanbe ; Tetsuji Azuma ; Daisuke Ekuni ; Naofumi Tamaki ; Tatsuo Yamamoto ; Manabu Morita (2009)
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • Journal: Japanese Dental Science Review, volume 45, issue 1, pages 46-51 (issn: 1882-7616)
  • Related identifiers: doi: 10.1016/j.jdsr.2008.12.002
  • Subject: RK1-715 | Dentistry(all) | Dentistry | Periodontitis | Reactive oxygen species | Blood | Oxidative stress

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are products of normal cellular metabolism. However, excessive production of ROS oxidizes DNA, lipids and proteins, inducing tissue damage. Studies have shown that periodontitis induces excessive ROS production in periodontal tissue. When periodontitis develops, ROS produced in the periodontal lesion diffuse into the blood stream, resulting in the oxidation of blood molecules (circulating oxidative stress). Such oxidation may be detrimental to systemic health. For instance, previous animal studies suggested that experimental periodontitis induces oxidative damage of the liver and descending aorta by increasing circulating oxidative stress. In addition, it has been revealed that clinical parameters in chronic periodontitis patients showed a significant improvement 2 months after periodontal treatment, which was accompanied by a significant reduction of reactive oxygen metabolites in plasma. Improvement of periodontitis by periodontal treatment could reduce the occurrence of circulating oxidative stress. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that the increase in circulating oxidative stress following diabetes mellitus and inappropriate nutrition damages periodontal tissues. In such cases, therapeutic approaches to systemic oxidative stress might be necessary to improve periodontal health.
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