Immunotherapy of Cancer: Reprogramming Tumor-Immune Crosstalk
Payne, Kyle K.
Toor, Amir A.
Manjili, Masoud H.
- Publisher: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Clinical and Developmental Immunology,
(issn: 1740-2522, eissn: 1740-2530)
Review Article | RC581-607 | Immunologic diseases. Allergy | Article Subject
mesheuropmc: chemical and pharmacologic phenomena
The advancement of cancer immunotherapy faces barriers which limit its efficacy. These include weak immunogenicity of the tumor, as well as immunosuppressive mechanisms which prevent effective antitumor immune responses. Recent studies suggest that aberrant expression of cancer testis antigens (CTAs) can generate robust antitumor immune responses, which implicates CTAs as potential targets for immunotherapy. However, the heterogeneity of tumor cells in the presence and quantity of CTA expression results in tumor escape from CTA-specific immune responses. Thus, the ability to modulate the tumor cell epigenome to homogenously induce expression of such antigens will likely render the tumor more immunogenic. Additionally, emerging studies suggest that suppression of antitumor immune responses may be overcome by reprogramming innate and adaptive immune cells. Therefore, this paper discusses recent studies which address barriers to successful cancer immunotherapy and proposes a strategy of modulation of tumor-immune cell crosstalk to improve responses in carcinoma patients.