Spatial distribution and size of small canopy gaps created by Japanese black bears: estimating gap size using dropped branch measurements

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Takahashi, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Kaori;
(2013)

Background Japanese black bears, a large-bodied omnivore, frequently create small gaps in the tree crown during fruit foraging. However, there are no previous reports of black bear-created canopy gaps. To characterize physical canopy disturbance by black bears, we exami... View more
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