Aléa sismique et gravitaire en zone de montagne : application au Cachemire (Pakistan)

Doctoral thesis French OPEN
Tahir, Mohammad;
(2011)
  • Publisher: HAL CCSD
  • Subject: [SDU.STU]Sciences of the Universe [physics]/Earth Sciences | Gravitaire | [ SDU.STU ] Sciences of the Universe [physics]/Earth Sciences | Spatio-temporal parameters | Aléa sismique | Faulting styles | Foreshocks | Aftershocks | Replique

On the last decades, progresses on the understanding of clustering seismicity in time, size and space have been driven by two parallel approaches. From the one hand studies on the mechanics of faulting in an elastic medium argue for the static stress triggering to domin... View more
  • References (193)
    193 references, page 1 of 20

    R´esum´e 7 Acknowledgement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 General introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 introduction G´en´erale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

    1 Aftershocks patterns in the Asian continental collision belt and the Muzafffarabad, Kashmir, 2005, sequence. 34 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 1.2 Mainshocks and Aftershocks selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 1.3 Analysis of aftershock patterns in time and space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 1.3.1 Normalised aftershock rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 1.3.2 Background Seismicity and Duration of Aftershock Sequences . . . 47 1.3.3 Omori Law Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 1.3.4 Size of Aftershock zone and average aftershock density . . . . . . . 53 1.4 Results and discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 1.4.1 Temporal Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 1.4.2 Spatial Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 1.4.3 Compound earthquake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 1.4.4 Correlation between Ms ≥ 7.0 aftershock patterns in the Eurasia collision belt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

    1.5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

    2 Faulting style controls on the aftershocks patterns: worldwide earthquake catalogue 76 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 2.2 Data: Mainshocks, aftershocks and background (foreshocks) selection . . . 81 2.3 Time and space aftershock patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 2.3.1 Normalised aftershock rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 2.3.2 Background Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 2.3.3 Omori Law Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 2.3.4 Aftershocks diffusion and faulting style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 2.4 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 2.4.1 Temporal analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 2.4.2 Spatial analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 2.5 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 2.6 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

    3 The largest aftershock: how strong, how far away, how delayed? 109 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 3.2 Data and Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 3.3 Results and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 3.4 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

    4 How much the mainshock size controls the aftershock patterns ? a global catalogue analysis. 121 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 4.2 Data Selection: Main Shocks and Aftershocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 4.3 Estimating Aftershock Patterns in Time and Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 5 Diffusion pattern of foreshocks and aftershocks: direct evidence for the respective role of direct and indirect aftershocks on diffusion regimes. 149 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 5.2 Data and Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 5.2.1 Omori Law Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 5.2.2 Forshocks/Aftershocks Diffusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 5.3 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 5.4 Discussion and Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Conclusions and perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Conclusions et perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 K.Y. Abdrakhmatov, SA Aldazhanov, BH Hager, MW Hamburger, TA Herring, KB Kalabaev, VI Makarov, P. Molnar, SV Panasyuk, MT Prilepin, et al. Relatively recent construction of the tien shan inferred from gps measurements of present-day crustal deformation rates. Nature, 384(6608):450-453, 1996.

    R.E. Abercrombie and J. Mori. Occurrence patterns of foreshocks to large earthquakes in the western united states. Nature, 381:303 - 307, 1996.

    H. Adeli. The sirch (kerman, iran) earthquake of 28 july 1981-a field investigation. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 72(3):841 - 861, 1982.

    K. Aki. Maximum likelihood estimate of b in the formula logn = a - bm and its confidence limits. Bull. Earthquake Res. Inst, 43:237 -239, 1965.

    K. Aki and P.G. Richards. Quantitative seismology. Univ. Sci. Books, Sausalito, Calif., 2nd edition, 2002. ISBN 0935702962.

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