publication . Review . Article . 2015

Secondary stroke prevention: challenges and solutions

Esenwa C; Gutierrez J;
Open Access English
  • Published: 01 Aug 2015 Journal: Vascular Health and Risk Management, volume 11, pages 437-450 (issn: 1176-6344, eissn: 1178-2048, Copyright policy)
  • Publisher: Dove Medical Press
Abstract
Charles Esenwa, Jose GutierrezDepartment of Neurology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the USA and a major cause of mortality worldwide. One out of four strokes is recurrent. Secondary stroke prevention starts with deciphering the most likely stroke mechanism. In general, one of the main goals in stroke reduction is to control vascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and smoking cessation. Changes in lifestyle like a healthy diet and aerobic exercise are also recommended strategies. In the case of cardioembolism due to atrial...
Subjects
mesheuropmc: cardiovascular diseases
free text keywords: RC666-701, Diseases of the circulatory (Cardiovascular) system, Review, stroke risk, stroke mechanisms, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, Vascular Health and Risk Management
Related Organizations
102 references, page 1 of 7

1. Sacco RL, Kasner SE, Broderick JP, et al; American Heart Association Stroke Council, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; et al. An updated definition of stroke for the 21st century: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2013;44(7):2064-2089.

2. Mozaffarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS, et al; American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart disease and stroke statistics - 2015 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2015;131(4):e29-e322.

3. O'Donnell MJ, Xavier D, Liu L, et al; INTERSTROKE investigators. Risk factors for ischaemic and intracerebral haemorrhagic stroke in 22 countries (the INTERSTROKE study): a case-control study. Lancet. 2010;376(9735):112-123.

4. Lackland DT, Roccella EJ, Deutsch AF, et al; American Heart Association Stroke Council; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research; Council on Functional Genomics and Translational Biology. Factors influenc - ing the decline in stroke mortality: a statement from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2014;45(1): 315-353.

5. Bamford J, Sandercock P, Dennis M, Burn J, Warlow C. Classicfiation and natural history of clinically identifiable subtypes of cerebral infarction. Lancet. 1991;337(8756):1521-1526.

6. Kernan WN, Ovbiagele B, Black HR, et al; American Heart Association Stroke Council, Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing, Council on Clinical Cardiology, and Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease. Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2014;45(7):2160-2236.

7. Adams HP Jr, Bendixen BH, Kappelle LJ, et al. Classicfiation of subtype of acute ischemic stroke. Definitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial. TOAST. Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment. Stroke. 1993;24(1):35-41.

8. Ay H, Furie KL, Singhal A, Smith WS, Sorensen AG, Koroshetz WJ. An evidence-based causative classification system for acute ischemic stroke. Ann Neurol. 2005;58(5):688-697.

9. Ay H, Benner T, Arsava EM, et al. A computerized algorithm for etiologic classification of ischemic stroke: the Causative Classification of Stroke System. Stroke. 2007;38(11):2979-2984.

10. Gutierrez J, Koch S, Dong C, et al. Racial and ethnic disparities in stroke subtypes: a multiethnic sample of patients with stroke. Neurol Sci. 2014;35(4):877-582.

11. Schneider AT, Kissela B, Woo D, et al. Ischemic stroke subtypes: a population-based study of incidence rates among blacks and whites. Stroke. 2004;35(7):1552-1556.

12. Atherosclerotic disease of the aortic arch as a risk factor for recurrent ischemic stroke. The French Study of Aortic Plaques in Stroke Group. N Engl J Med. 1996;334(19):1216-1221.

13. Chimowitz MI, Lynn MJ, Howlett-Smith H, et al; Warfarin-Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease Trial Investigators. Comparison of warfarin and aspirin for symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(13):1305-1316.

14. Brott TG, Hobson RW 2nd, Howard G, et al; CREST Investigators. Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(1):11-23.

15. Warfarin versus aspirin for prevention of thromboembolism in atrial ifbrillation: Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation II Study. Lancet. 1994;343(8899):687-691.

102 references, page 1 of 7
Abstract
Charles Esenwa, Jose GutierrezDepartment of Neurology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the USA and a major cause of mortality worldwide. One out of four strokes is recurrent. Secondary stroke prevention starts with deciphering the most likely stroke mechanism. In general, one of the main goals in stroke reduction is to control vascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and smoking cessation. Changes in lifestyle like a healthy diet and aerobic exercise are also recommended strategies. In the case of cardioembolism due to atrial...
Subjects
mesheuropmc: cardiovascular diseases
free text keywords: RC666-701, Diseases of the circulatory (Cardiovascular) system, Review, stroke risk, stroke mechanisms, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, Vascular Health and Risk Management
Related Organizations
102 references, page 1 of 7

1. Sacco RL, Kasner SE, Broderick JP, et al; American Heart Association Stroke Council, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; et al. An updated definition of stroke for the 21st century: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2013;44(7):2064-2089.

2. Mozaffarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS, et al; American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart disease and stroke statistics - 2015 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2015;131(4):e29-e322.

3. O'Donnell MJ, Xavier D, Liu L, et al; INTERSTROKE investigators. Risk factors for ischaemic and intracerebral haemorrhagic stroke in 22 countries (the INTERSTROKE study): a case-control study. Lancet. 2010;376(9735):112-123.

4. Lackland DT, Roccella EJ, Deutsch AF, et al; American Heart Association Stroke Council; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research; Council on Functional Genomics and Translational Biology. Factors influenc - ing the decline in stroke mortality: a statement from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2014;45(1): 315-353.

5. Bamford J, Sandercock P, Dennis M, Burn J, Warlow C. Classicfiation and natural history of clinically identifiable subtypes of cerebral infarction. Lancet. 1991;337(8756):1521-1526.

6. Kernan WN, Ovbiagele B, Black HR, et al; American Heart Association Stroke Council, Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing, Council on Clinical Cardiology, and Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease. Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2014;45(7):2160-2236.

7. Adams HP Jr, Bendixen BH, Kappelle LJ, et al. Classicfiation of subtype of acute ischemic stroke. Definitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial. TOAST. Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment. Stroke. 1993;24(1):35-41.

8. Ay H, Furie KL, Singhal A, Smith WS, Sorensen AG, Koroshetz WJ. An evidence-based causative classification system for acute ischemic stroke. Ann Neurol. 2005;58(5):688-697.

9. Ay H, Benner T, Arsava EM, et al. A computerized algorithm for etiologic classification of ischemic stroke: the Causative Classification of Stroke System. Stroke. 2007;38(11):2979-2984.

10. Gutierrez J, Koch S, Dong C, et al. Racial and ethnic disparities in stroke subtypes: a multiethnic sample of patients with stroke. Neurol Sci. 2014;35(4):877-582.

11. Schneider AT, Kissela B, Woo D, et al. Ischemic stroke subtypes: a population-based study of incidence rates among blacks and whites. Stroke. 2004;35(7):1552-1556.

12. Atherosclerotic disease of the aortic arch as a risk factor for recurrent ischemic stroke. The French Study of Aortic Plaques in Stroke Group. N Engl J Med. 1996;334(19):1216-1221.

13. Chimowitz MI, Lynn MJ, Howlett-Smith H, et al; Warfarin-Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease Trial Investigators. Comparison of warfarin and aspirin for symptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(13):1305-1316.

14. Brott TG, Hobson RW 2nd, Howard G, et al; CREST Investigators. Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(1):11-23.

15. Warfarin versus aspirin for prevention of thromboembolism in atrial ifbrillation: Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation II Study. Lancet. 1994;343(8899):687-691.

102 references, page 1 of 7
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publication . Review . Article . 2015

Secondary stroke prevention: challenges and solutions

Esenwa C; Gutierrez J;