An Emerging New Paradigm in Opioid Withdrawal: A Critical Role for Glia-Neuron Signaling in the Periaqueductal Gray

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Handong Ouyang; Shue Liu; Weian Zeng; Roy C. Levitt; Keith A. Candiotti; Shuanglin Hao;

The chronic use of opiates (i.e., narcotics such as the natural derivatives of opium including morphine or codeine) or opioids (i.e., semisynthetic derivatives of opium and other molecules that activate opioid receptors) induces dependence, which is associated with vari... View more
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