A System Out of Breath: How Hypoxia Possibly Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Systemic Sclerosis

Article, Review English OPEN
van Hal, T. W.; van Bon, L.; Radstake, T. R. D. J.; (2011)
  • Publisher: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
  • Journal: International Journal of Rheumatology,volume 2,011 (issn: 1687-9260, eissn: 1687-9279)
  • Related identifiers: doi: 10.1155/2011/824972, pmc: PMC3228323
  • Subject: Review Article | Diseases of the musculoskeletal system | RC925-935 | Article Subject
    mesheuropmc: skin and connective tissue diseases | integumentary system

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by vascular alterations and immunological disturbances and fibrosis, the order of which remains to be fully determined. Clinically, patients show clear signs of hypoxia in skin and internal organs. The low ... View more
  • References (72)
    72 references, page 1 of 8

    [1] S. A. Jimenez and C. T. Derk, “Following the Molecular Pathways toward an Understanding of the Pathogenesis of Systemic Sclerosis,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 140, no. 1, pp. 37-50, 2004.

    [2] M. Cutolo, W. Grassi, and M. M. Cerinic, “Raynaud's phenomenon and the role of capillaroscopy,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 3023-3030, 2003.

    [3] H. R. Maricq and E. C. LeRoy, “Correlation of capillary morphology and flow during cold exposure in Raynaud syndrome,” Bibliotheca Anatomica, no. 18, pp. 382-384, 1979.

    [4] D. F. Higgins, K. Kimura, W. M. Bernhardt et al., “Hypoxia promotes fibrogenesis in vivo via HIF-1 stimulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 117, no. 12, pp. 3810-3820, 2007.

    [5] J. L. Silverstein, V. D. Steen, T. A. Medsger, and V. Falanga, “Cutaneous hypoxia in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma),” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 124, no. 9, pp. 1379- 1382, 1988.

    [6] O. Distler, J. H. W. Distler, A. Scheid et al., “Uncontrolled expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors leads to insufficient skin angiogenesis in patients with systemic sclerosis,” Circulation Research, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 109-116, 2004.

    [7] C. M. Stein, S. B. Tanner, J. A. Awad, L. J. Roberts, and J. D. Morrow, “Evidence of free radical-mediated injury (isoprostane overproduction) in scleroderma,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 1146-1150, 1996.

    [8] C. S. Lau, A. B. Bridges, A. Muir, N. Scott, A. Bancroft, and J. J. F. Belch, “Further evidence of increased polymorphonuclear cell activity in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon,” British Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 375-380, 1992.

    [9] K. T. Ho and J. D. Reveille, “The clinical relevance of autoantibodies in scleroderma,” Arthritis Research and Therapy, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 80-93, 2003.

    [10] M. C. Brihimi-Horn and J. Pouysse´gur, “HIF at a glance,” Journal of Cell Science, vol. 122, no. 8, pp. 1055-1057, 2009.

  • Metrics
    No metrics available
Share - Bookmark