publication . Article . 2011

"India's Rasputin"?: V.K. Krishna Menon and Anglo–American misperceptions of Indian foreign policymaking, 1947–1964

McGarr, Paul M.;
Open Access English
  • Published: 01 Jan 2011
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Abstract
From 1947 until his political demise in late 1962, Vengalil Krishanan Krishna Menon stood at the forefront of India's international relations. One of Indian Premier Jawaharlal Nehru's closest political confidantes, Menon served variously as India's High Commissioner to the United Kingdom, leader of its delegation to the United Nations, self-styled mediator in the Korea, Indo–China, and Suez crises of the 1950s and, from 1957, his country's Defence Minister. Vilified in the West as “India's Rasputin,” Menon's left-wing credentials, anti-colonial rhetoric, and willingness to engage with the Communist bloc were seen by Anglo–American diplomats as a threat to Wester...
125 references, page 1 of 9

1. Clutterbuck to Garner, 21 October 1954, KV [Security Service Archives, National Archives, Kew] 2/2514-3.

2. Michael Brecher, Succession in India: A Study in Decision-Making, (London, 1966), p. 6.

3. See, for example, Time, “Who's Next?” (24 August 1962); Welles Hangen, After Nehru, Who? (London, 1963). 4 1 0 2 h c r a M 1 1 8 0 : 4 0 t a ] 9 8 1 . 2 6 1 . 3 2 . 2 8 [ y b d e d a o l n w o D

4. Conversation between Home, Rusk, Shuckburgh and Bruce, Paris, 10 December 1961, FO [Foreign Office Archives, National Archives, Kew] 371/159708/1024/61.

5. C. L. Sulzberger, The Last of the Giants, (London, 1972), p. 906.

6. Gore-Booth to Sandys, 26 May 1961, DO [Commonwealth Relations Office Archives, National Archives, Kew] 196/74.

7. Sarvepalli Gopal, Jawaharlal Nehru: A Biography, Volume 1: 1889-1947 (London, 1975),

8. “Current Intelligence Weekly Summary,” 16 June 1955, CIA-RDP79-0927A000500110001-6, CIA Records Search Tool [National Archives, Washington DC (hereafter CREST)].

9. Notably, K.C. Arora, V. K. Krishna Menon: A Biography (New Delhi, 1998); Janaki Ram, V.K.K. Menon: A Personal Memoir (New Delhi, 1997); T.J.S. George, Krishna Menon: A Biography (London, 1964). The work of the political scientist, Michael Brecher, is a notable exception. Brecher's work on Menon, however, whilst path-breaking, dates from the 1960s. See, in particular, his India and World Politics: Krishna Menon's View of the World, (Oxford, 1968); idem., “Elite Images and Foreign Policy Choices: Krishna Menon's View of the World,” Pacific Affairs, 40(Spring-Summer 1967), pp. 60-92.

10. See, for example, Robert J. McMahon, The Cold War on the Periphery: The United States, India and Pakistan (New York, 1994); Anita Inder Singh, The Limits of Influence: South Asia and the AngloAmerican Relationship, 1947-56 (London, 1993); Dennis Kux, India and the United States: Estranged Democracies (Washington, 1993); Dennis Merrill, Bread and the Ballot: The United States and India's Economic Development (Chapel Hill, NC, 1990); Andrew Rotter, Comrades at Odds: The United States and India, 1947-1964 (Ithaca, NY, 2000).

11. Oral History Interview, Arthur W. Hummel, Jr., 13 July 1989, Foreign Affairs Oral History Project [Library of Congress, Washington, DC (hereafter FAOHP)].

12. Harold R. Issacs, Scratches On Our Minds: America images of China and India, (New York, 1958), pp. 313-14.

13. Time (18 July 1955); Stanley Wolpert, Nehru: Tryst with Destiny (London, 1996), p. 487.

14. Time (29 April 1957).

15. Time (2 February 1962).

125 references, page 1 of 9
Abstract
From 1947 until his political demise in late 1962, Vengalil Krishanan Krishna Menon stood at the forefront of India's international relations. One of Indian Premier Jawaharlal Nehru's closest political confidantes, Menon served variously as India's High Commissioner to the United Kingdom, leader of its delegation to the United Nations, self-styled mediator in the Korea, Indo–China, and Suez crises of the 1950s and, from 1957, his country's Defence Minister. Vilified in the West as “India's Rasputin,” Menon's left-wing credentials, anti-colonial rhetoric, and willingness to engage with the Communist bloc were seen by Anglo–American diplomats as a threat to Wester...
125 references, page 1 of 9

1. Clutterbuck to Garner, 21 October 1954, KV [Security Service Archives, National Archives, Kew] 2/2514-3.

2. Michael Brecher, Succession in India: A Study in Decision-Making, (London, 1966), p. 6.

3. See, for example, Time, “Who's Next?” (24 August 1962); Welles Hangen, After Nehru, Who? (London, 1963). 4 1 0 2 h c r a M 1 1 8 0 : 4 0 t a ] 9 8 1 . 2 6 1 . 3 2 . 2 8 [ y b d e d a o l n w o D

4. Conversation between Home, Rusk, Shuckburgh and Bruce, Paris, 10 December 1961, FO [Foreign Office Archives, National Archives, Kew] 371/159708/1024/61.

5. C. L. Sulzberger, The Last of the Giants, (London, 1972), p. 906.

6. Gore-Booth to Sandys, 26 May 1961, DO [Commonwealth Relations Office Archives, National Archives, Kew] 196/74.

7. Sarvepalli Gopal, Jawaharlal Nehru: A Biography, Volume 1: 1889-1947 (London, 1975),

8. “Current Intelligence Weekly Summary,” 16 June 1955, CIA-RDP79-0927A000500110001-6, CIA Records Search Tool [National Archives, Washington DC (hereafter CREST)].

9. Notably, K.C. Arora, V. K. Krishna Menon: A Biography (New Delhi, 1998); Janaki Ram, V.K.K. Menon: A Personal Memoir (New Delhi, 1997); T.J.S. George, Krishna Menon: A Biography (London, 1964). The work of the political scientist, Michael Brecher, is a notable exception. Brecher's work on Menon, however, whilst path-breaking, dates from the 1960s. See, in particular, his India and World Politics: Krishna Menon's View of the World, (Oxford, 1968); idem., “Elite Images and Foreign Policy Choices: Krishna Menon's View of the World,” Pacific Affairs, 40(Spring-Summer 1967), pp. 60-92.

10. See, for example, Robert J. McMahon, The Cold War on the Periphery: The United States, India and Pakistan (New York, 1994); Anita Inder Singh, The Limits of Influence: South Asia and the AngloAmerican Relationship, 1947-56 (London, 1993); Dennis Kux, India and the United States: Estranged Democracies (Washington, 1993); Dennis Merrill, Bread and the Ballot: The United States and India's Economic Development (Chapel Hill, NC, 1990); Andrew Rotter, Comrades at Odds: The United States and India, 1947-1964 (Ithaca, NY, 2000).

11. Oral History Interview, Arthur W. Hummel, Jr., 13 July 1989, Foreign Affairs Oral History Project [Library of Congress, Washington, DC (hereafter FAOHP)].

12. Harold R. Issacs, Scratches On Our Minds: America images of China and India, (New York, 1958), pp. 313-14.

13. Time (18 July 1955); Stanley Wolpert, Nehru: Tryst with Destiny (London, 1996), p. 487.

14. Time (29 April 1957).

15. Time (2 February 1962).

125 references, page 1 of 9
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publication . Article . 2011

"India's Rasputin"?: V.K. Krishna Menon and Anglo–American misperceptions of Indian foreign policymaking, 1947–1964

McGarr, Paul M.;