Adhesion and cleaning of foods with complex structure: Effect of oil content and fluoropolymer coating characteristics on the detachment of cake from baking surfaces

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Magens, OM ; Liu, Y ; Hofmans, JFA ; Nelissen, JA ; Wilson, DI (2017)
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • Related identifiers: doi: 10.17863/CAM.7356
  • Subject: cleaning | surface energy | cake | fouling | adhesion | cohesion

The effect of surface coating on the detachment of a complex microstructured food material, was investigated using an improved version of the millimanipulation device described by Ali et al. (2015 $\textit{Food & Bioproducts Processing}$, Vol. 93, 256–268). The test material was baked sponge cake batter, which contains approximately 27 vol% bubbles in a ‘continuous’ phase of emulsified oil in a flour/syrup suspension. Detachment in the dry state was studied for aluminium, 304 stainless steel and seven different fluoropolymer coatings. The surfaces differed in surface energy and roughness. The shear force required to detach baked cake, the work done, and the mass of residue remaining on the surface were measured. Virtually all samples detached by cohesive or mixed failure, where adhesion to the surface was stronger than or comparable with cohesive interactions within the cake. The shear force was almost independent of surface composition, energy and roughness, but strongly related to the oil content of the cake. The mass of residue was found to be linearly dependent on the calculated work of adhesion of oil to the surface in an aqueous environment. The quantitative findings are consistent with confocal microscopy images of uncooked batter contacting polar and non-polar surfaces which show very different oil spreading behaviour at the batter-substrate interface. The ability of oil to replace water from a surface is shown to be a key factor determining adhesion of these materials. A Jardine Postgraduate Scholarship for YL from the Jardine Foundation and a PhD studentship for OMM from Du Pont/Chemours and is gratefully acknowledged.
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