DiGeorge Syndrome: a not so rare disease

Article English OPEN
Fomin,Angela BF ; Pastorino,Antonio Carlos ; Kim,Chong Ae ; Pereira,CA ; Carneiro-Sampaio,Magda ; Abe-Jacob,Cristina Miuki (2010)
  • Publisher: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
  • Journal: volume 65, issue 9, pages 865-869 (issn: 1807-5932, eissn: 1980-5322)
  • Related identifiers: pmc: PMC2954737, doi: 10.1590/S1807-59322010000900009
  • Subject: Clinical Science | Thymus | Immunologic deficiency syndromes | 22q11.2 deletion | R5-920 | Medicine (General) | DiGeorge syndrome

INTRODUCTION: The DiGeorge Syndrome was first described in 1968 as a primary immunodeficiency resulting from the abnormal development of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches during embryonic life. It is characterized by hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism, heart defects, and thymic hypoplasia or aplasia. Its incidence is 1:3000 live births and, despite its high frequency, little is known about its natural history and progression. ←This is probably due to diagnostic difficulties and the great variety of names used to describe it, such as velocardiofacial, Shprintzen, DiGeorge, and CATCH 22 Syndromes, as well as conotruncal facial anomaly. All represent the same genetic condition, chromosome 22q11.2 deletion, which might have several clinical expressions. OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical and laboratorial data and phenotypic characteristics of patients with DiGeorge Syndrome. METHODS: Patients underwent standard clinical and epidemiological protocol and tests to detect heart diseases, facial abnormalities, dimorphisms, neurological or behavioral disorders, recurrent infections and other comorbidities. RESULTS: Of 14 patients (8m – 18y11m), only one did not have 22q11.2 deletion detected. The main findings were: conotruncal malformation (n  =  12), facial abnormalities (n  =  11), hypocalcemia (n  =  5) and low lymphocyte count (n = 2). CONCLUSION: The authors pointed out the necessity of DGS suspicion in all patient presenting with heart defects, facial abnormalities (associated or not with hypocalcemia), and immunological disorders because although frequency of DGS is high, few patients with a confirmed diagnosis are followed up.