publication . Article . 2015

Evolution of extreme stomach pH in bilateria inferred from gastric alkalization mechanisms in basal deuterostomes

Stumpp, Meike; Hu, Marian Y.; Tseng, Yung-Che; Guh, Ying-Jeh; Chen, Yi-Chih; Yu, Jr-Kai; Su, Yi-Hsien; Hwang, Pung-Pung;
Open Access
  • Published: 08 Jun 2015 Journal: volume 5issn: 2045-2322, eissn: 2045-2322, Copyright policy
  • Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Abstract
The stomachs of most vertebrates operate at an acidic pH of 2 generated by the gastric H+/K+-ATPase located in parietal cells. The acidic pH in stomachs of vertebrates is believed to aid digestion and to protect against environmental pathogens. Little attention has been placed on whether acidic gastric pH regulation is a vertebrate character or a deuterostome ancestral trait. Here, we report alkaline conditions up to pH 10.5 in the larval digestive systems of ambulacraria (echinoderm + hemichordate), the closest relative of the chordate. Microelectrode measurements in combination with specific inhibitors for acid-base transporters and ion pumps demonstrated that...
Subjects
free text keywords: Article
38 references, page 1 of 3

Koelz H. R.Gastric acid in vertebrates. Scand. J. Gastroenterol.27, 2–6 (1992).

Tennant S. M.et al.Influence of gastric acid on susceptibility to infection with ingested bacterial pathogens. Infect. Immun.76, 639–645 (2008).18025100 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Smith J. L.The role of gastric acid in preventing foodborne disease and how bacteria overcome acid conditions. J. Food Prot.7, 1115–1325 (2003).

Forte J. G. & Zhu L. Apical recycling of the gastric parietal cell H,K-ATPase. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 72, 273–296 (2010).20148676 [PubMed]

Azuma M., Harvey W. R. & Wieczorek H. Stoichiometry of H+/K+antiport helps to explain extracellular pH 11 in a model epithelium. FEBS Lett. 361, 153–156 (1995).7698314 [PubMed]

Boudko D. Y., Moroz L. L., Harvey W. R. & Linser P. J. Alkalization by chloride/bicarbonate pathway in larval mosquito midgut. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 15354–15 359 (2001).11742083 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Shanbhag S. & Tripathi S. Electrogenic H+ transport and pH gradients generated by a V-H+-ATPase in the isolated perfused larval Drosophila midgut. J. Membr Biol. 206, 61–72 (2005).16440182 [PubMed]

Thorsen M. S.Microbial activity, oxygen status and fermentation in the gut of the irregular sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum (Spatangoida: Echinodermata). Mar. Biol.132, 423–433 (1998).

Ahrens M. J.et al.The effect of body size on digestive chemistry and absorption efficiencies of food and sediment-bound organic contaminants in Nereis succinea (Polychaeta). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol.263, 185–209 (2001).

Stumpp M.et al.Digestion in sea urchin larvae impaired under ocean acidification. Nature Climate Change 3, 1044 (2013). [OpenAIRE]

Davidson E. H.The sea urchin genome: where will it lead us?Science 314, 939 (2006).17095689 [PubMed]

Chow D. R. & Forte J. G. Functional significance of the ß-subunit for heterodomeric P-type ATPases. J. Exp. Biol. 198, 1–17 (1995).7891030 [PubMed]

Stumpp M.et al.Acidified seawater impacts sea urchin larvae pH regulatory systems relevant for calcification. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 18192–18197 (2012).23077257 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Stumpp M.et al.Digestion in sea urchin larvae impaired under ocean acidification. Nature Climate Change 3, 1044–1049 (2013). [OpenAIRE]

Felton G. W. & Duffey S. S. Reassessment of the role of gut alkalinity and detergency in insect herbivory. J. Chem. Ecol. 17, 1821–1836 (1991).24257923 [PubMed]

38 references, page 1 of 3
Abstract
The stomachs of most vertebrates operate at an acidic pH of 2 generated by the gastric H+/K+-ATPase located in parietal cells. The acidic pH in stomachs of vertebrates is believed to aid digestion and to protect against environmental pathogens. Little attention has been placed on whether acidic gastric pH regulation is a vertebrate character or a deuterostome ancestral trait. Here, we report alkaline conditions up to pH 10.5 in the larval digestive systems of ambulacraria (echinoderm + hemichordate), the closest relative of the chordate. Microelectrode measurements in combination with specific inhibitors for acid-base transporters and ion pumps demonstrated that...
Subjects
free text keywords: Article
38 references, page 1 of 3

Koelz H. R.Gastric acid in vertebrates. Scand. J. Gastroenterol.27, 2–6 (1992).

Tennant S. M.et al.Influence of gastric acid on susceptibility to infection with ingested bacterial pathogens. Infect. Immun.76, 639–645 (2008).18025100 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Smith J. L.The role of gastric acid in preventing foodborne disease and how bacteria overcome acid conditions. J. Food Prot.7, 1115–1325 (2003).

Forte J. G. & Zhu L. Apical recycling of the gastric parietal cell H,K-ATPase. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 72, 273–296 (2010).20148676 [PubMed]

Azuma M., Harvey W. R. & Wieczorek H. Stoichiometry of H+/K+antiport helps to explain extracellular pH 11 in a model epithelium. FEBS Lett. 361, 153–156 (1995).7698314 [PubMed]

Boudko D. Y., Moroz L. L., Harvey W. R. & Linser P. J. Alkalization by chloride/bicarbonate pathway in larval mosquito midgut. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 15354–15 359 (2001).11742083 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Shanbhag S. & Tripathi S. Electrogenic H+ transport and pH gradients generated by a V-H+-ATPase in the isolated perfused larval Drosophila midgut. J. Membr Biol. 206, 61–72 (2005).16440182 [PubMed]

Thorsen M. S.Microbial activity, oxygen status and fermentation in the gut of the irregular sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum (Spatangoida: Echinodermata). Mar. Biol.132, 423–433 (1998).

Ahrens M. J.et al.The effect of body size on digestive chemistry and absorption efficiencies of food and sediment-bound organic contaminants in Nereis succinea (Polychaeta). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol.263, 185–209 (2001).

Stumpp M.et al.Digestion in sea urchin larvae impaired under ocean acidification. Nature Climate Change 3, 1044 (2013). [OpenAIRE]

Davidson E. H.The sea urchin genome: where will it lead us?Science 314, 939 (2006).17095689 [PubMed]

Chow D. R. & Forte J. G. Functional significance of the ß-subunit for heterodomeric P-type ATPases. J. Exp. Biol. 198, 1–17 (1995).7891030 [PubMed]

Stumpp M.et al.Acidified seawater impacts sea urchin larvae pH regulatory systems relevant for calcification. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 18192–18197 (2012).23077257 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed]

Stumpp M.et al.Digestion in sea urchin larvae impaired under ocean acidification. Nature Climate Change 3, 1044–1049 (2013). [OpenAIRE]

Felton G. W. & Duffey S. S. Reassessment of the role of gut alkalinity and detergency in insect herbivory. J. Chem. Ecol. 17, 1821–1836 (1991).24257923 [PubMed]

38 references, page 1 of 3
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publication . Article . 2015

Evolution of extreme stomach pH in bilateria inferred from gastric alkalization mechanisms in basal deuterostomes

Stumpp, Meike; Hu, Marian Y.; Tseng, Yung-Che; Guh, Ying-Jeh; Chen, Yi-Chih; Yu, Jr-Kai; Su, Yi-Hsien; Hwang, Pung-Pung;