Brodin, A. 2001. Mass-dependent predation and metabolic expenditure in wintering birds: is there a trade-off between different forms of predation? Animal Behaviour 62:993-999.
Brodin, A. 2007. Theoretical models of adaptive energy management in small wintering birds. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 362:1857-1871.
Caro, T. 2005. Antipredator defenses in birds and mammals. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Christianson, D., and S. Creel. 2010. A nutritionally mediated risk effect of wolves on elk. Ecology 91:1184-1191.
Creel, S. 2011. Toward a predictive theory of risk effects: hypotheses for prey attributes and compensatory mortality. Ecology 92:2190-2195.
Creel, S., and D. Christianson. 2008. Relationships between direct predation and risk effects. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23:194-201.
Creel, S., D. Christianson, S. Liley, and J. A. Winnie. 2007. Predation risk affects reproductive physiology and demography of elk. Science 315:960.
Creel, S., J. A. Winnie, and D. Christianson. 2009. Glucocorticoid stress hormones and the effect of predation risk on elk reproduction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106:12388-12393. [OpenAIRE]
Creel, S., J. Winnie, B. Maxwell, K. Hamlin, and M. Creel. 2005. Elk alter habitat selection as an antipredator response to wolves. Ecology 86:3387-3397.
Cresswell, W. 2011. Predation in bird populations. Journal of Ornithology 152:251-263. [OpenAIRE]
Gentle, L. K., and A. G. Gosler. 2001. Fat reserves and perceived predation risk in the great tit, Parus major. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 268: 487-491. [OpenAIRE]
Gosler, A. G., J. J. D. Greenwood, and C. Perrins. 1995. Predation risk and the cost of being fat. Nature 377:621-623.
Heithaus, M. R., A. Frid, A. J. Wirsing, and B. Worm. 2008. Predicting ecological consequences of marine top predator declines. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23:202-210.
Heithaus, M. R., A. J. Wirsing, D. Burkholder, J. Thomson, and L. M. Dill. 2009. Towards a predictive framework for predator risk effects: the interaction of landscape features and prey escape tactics. Journal of Animal Ecology 78:556- 562.
Houston, A. I., J. M. McNamara, and J. M. C. Hutchinson. 1993. General results concerning the trade-off between gaining energy and avoiding predation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 341:375-397.