publication . Article . 2016

The Emerging Role of Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Insulin Resistance and Metabolism

Mee-Sup Yoon;
Open Access English
  • Published: 01 Jul 2016 Journal: Nutrients, volume 8, issue 7 (issn: 2072-6643, eissn: 2072-6643, Copyright policy)
  • Publisher: MDPI
Abstract
Insulin is required for maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Despite the importance of insulin sensitivity to metabolic health, the mechanisms that induce insulin resistance remain unclear. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) belong to the essential amino acids, which are both direct and indirect nutrient signals. Even though BCAAs have been reported to improve metabolic health, an increased BCAA plasma level is associated with a high risk of metabolic disorder and future insulin resistance, or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) by BCAAs has been suggested to cause insulin resistance. In addition, de...
Subjects
free text keywords: Nutrition. Foods and food supply, TX341-641, Review, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), metabolism, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), insulin resistance
94 references, page 1 of 7

Lu, J., Xie, G., Jia, W., Jia, W.. Insulin resistance and the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids. Front. Med.. 2013; 7: 53-59 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Lynch, C.J., Adams, S.H.. Branched-chain amino acids in metabolic signalling and insulin resistance. Nat. Rev. Endocrinol.. 2014; 10: 723-736 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Wang, T.J., Larson, M.G., Vasan, R.S., Cheng, S., Rhee, E.P., McCabe, E., Lewis, G.D., Fox, C.S., Jacques, P.F., Fernandez, C.. Metabolite profiles and the risk of developing diabetes. Nat. Med.. 2011; 17: 448-453 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Giesbertz, P., Daniel, H.. Branched-chain amino acids as biomarkers in diabetes. Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care. 2016; 19: 48-54 [PubMed] [DOI]

Cota, D., Proulx, K., Smith, K.A., Kozma, S.C., Thomas, G., Woods, S.C., Seeley, R.J.. Hypothalamic mTOR signaling regulates food intake. Science. 2006; 312: 927-930 [PubMed] [DOI]

Blouet, C., Jo, Y.H., Li, X., Schwartz, G.J.. Mediobasal hypothalamic leucine sensing regulates food intake through activation of a hypothalamus-brainstem circuit. J. Neurosci.. 2009; 29: 8302-8311 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Torres-Leal, F.L., Fonseca-Alaniz, M.H., Teodoro, G.F., de Capitani, M.D., Vianna, D., Pantaleão, L.C., Matos-Neto, E.M., Rogero, M.M., Donato, J., Tirapegui, J.. Leucine supplementation improves adiponectin and total cholesterol concentrations despite the lack of changes in adiposity or glucose homeostasis in rats previously exposed to a high-fat diet. Nutr. Metab.. 2011; 8: 62 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Chen, Q., Reimer, R.A.. Dairy protein and leucine alter GLP-1 release and mRNA of genes involved in intestinal lipid metabolism in vitro. Nutrition. 2009; 25: 340-349 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Nilsson, M., Holst, J.J., Bjorck, I.M.. Metabolic effects of amino acid mixtures and whey protein in healthy subjects: Studies using glucose-equivalent drinks. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.. 2007; 85: 996-1004 [PubMed]

Sener, A., Malaisse, W.J.. The stimulus-secretion coupling of amino acid-induced insulin release: Insulinotropic action of branched-chain amino acids at physiological concentrations of glucose and glutamine. Eur. J. Clin. Invest.. 1981; 11: 455-460 [PubMed] [DOI]

Vary, T.C., Lynch, C.J.. Nutrient signaling components controlling protein synthesis in striated muscle. J. Nutr.. 2007; 137: 1835-1843 [PubMed]

Lynch, C.J., Patson, B.J., Anthony, J., Vaval, A., Jefferson, L.S., Vary, T.C.. Leucine is a direct-acting nutrient signal that regulates protein synthesis in adipose tissue. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.. 2002; 283: E503-E513 [PubMed] [DOI]

Dodd, K.M., Tee, A.R.. Leucine and mTORC1: A complex relationship. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.. 2012; 302: E1329-E1342 [PubMed] [DOI]

Giordano, M., Castellino, P.. Correlation between amino acid induced changes in energy expenditure and protein metabolism in humans. Nutrition. 1997; 13: 309-312 [PubMed] [DOI]

Holecek, M.. Three targets of branched-chain amino acid supplementation in the treatment of liver disease. Nutrition. 2010; 26: 482-490 [PubMed] [DOI]

94 references, page 1 of 7
Abstract
Insulin is required for maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Despite the importance of insulin sensitivity to metabolic health, the mechanisms that induce insulin resistance remain unclear. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) belong to the essential amino acids, which are both direct and indirect nutrient signals. Even though BCAAs have been reported to improve metabolic health, an increased BCAA plasma level is associated with a high risk of metabolic disorder and future insulin resistance, or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) by BCAAs has been suggested to cause insulin resistance. In addition, de...
Subjects
free text keywords: Nutrition. Foods and food supply, TX341-641, Review, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), metabolism, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), insulin resistance
94 references, page 1 of 7

Lu, J., Xie, G., Jia, W., Jia, W.. Insulin resistance and the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids. Front. Med.. 2013; 7: 53-59 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Lynch, C.J., Adams, S.H.. Branched-chain amino acids in metabolic signalling and insulin resistance. Nat. Rev. Endocrinol.. 2014; 10: 723-736 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Wang, T.J., Larson, M.G., Vasan, R.S., Cheng, S., Rhee, E.P., McCabe, E., Lewis, G.D., Fox, C.S., Jacques, P.F., Fernandez, C.. Metabolite profiles and the risk of developing diabetes. Nat. Med.. 2011; 17: 448-453 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Giesbertz, P., Daniel, H.. Branched-chain amino acids as biomarkers in diabetes. Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care. 2016; 19: 48-54 [PubMed] [DOI]

Cota, D., Proulx, K., Smith, K.A., Kozma, S.C., Thomas, G., Woods, S.C., Seeley, R.J.. Hypothalamic mTOR signaling regulates food intake. Science. 2006; 312: 927-930 [PubMed] [DOI]

Blouet, C., Jo, Y.H., Li, X., Schwartz, G.J.. Mediobasal hypothalamic leucine sensing regulates food intake through activation of a hypothalamus-brainstem circuit. J. Neurosci.. 2009; 29: 8302-8311 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Torres-Leal, F.L., Fonseca-Alaniz, M.H., Teodoro, G.F., de Capitani, M.D., Vianna, D., Pantaleão, L.C., Matos-Neto, E.M., Rogero, M.M., Donato, J., Tirapegui, J.. Leucine supplementation improves adiponectin and total cholesterol concentrations despite the lack of changes in adiposity or glucose homeostasis in rats previously exposed to a high-fat diet. Nutr. Metab.. 2011; 8: 62 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Chen, Q., Reimer, R.A.. Dairy protein and leucine alter GLP-1 release and mRNA of genes involved in intestinal lipid metabolism in vitro. Nutrition. 2009; 25: 340-349 [OpenAIRE] [PubMed] [DOI]

Nilsson, M., Holst, J.J., Bjorck, I.M.. Metabolic effects of amino acid mixtures and whey protein in healthy subjects: Studies using glucose-equivalent drinks. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.. 2007; 85: 996-1004 [PubMed]

Sener, A., Malaisse, W.J.. The stimulus-secretion coupling of amino acid-induced insulin release: Insulinotropic action of branched-chain amino acids at physiological concentrations of glucose and glutamine. Eur. J. Clin. Invest.. 1981; 11: 455-460 [PubMed] [DOI]

Vary, T.C., Lynch, C.J.. Nutrient signaling components controlling protein synthesis in striated muscle. J. Nutr.. 2007; 137: 1835-1843 [PubMed]

Lynch, C.J., Patson, B.J., Anthony, J., Vaval, A., Jefferson, L.S., Vary, T.C.. Leucine is a direct-acting nutrient signal that regulates protein synthesis in adipose tissue. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.. 2002; 283: E503-E513 [PubMed] [DOI]

Dodd, K.M., Tee, A.R.. Leucine and mTORC1: A complex relationship. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.. 2012; 302: E1329-E1342 [PubMed] [DOI]

Giordano, M., Castellino, P.. Correlation between amino acid induced changes in energy expenditure and protein metabolism in humans. Nutrition. 1997; 13: 309-312 [PubMed] [DOI]

Holecek, M.. Three targets of branched-chain amino acid supplementation in the treatment of liver disease. Nutrition. 2010; 26: 482-490 [PubMed] [DOI]

94 references, page 1 of 7
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publication . Article . 2016

The Emerging Role of Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Insulin Resistance and Metabolism

Mee-Sup Yoon;