Security Sector Reform in Albania

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Abazi , Enika ; Bumci , Aldo ; Hide , Enri ; Rakipi , Albert (2009)
  • Publisher: HAL CCSD
  • Subject: Armaments | Security Reform | [SHS.SCIPO] Humanities and Social Sciences/Political science | Defence Policy | Peace building | [ SHS.SCIPO ] Humanities and Social Sciences/Political science

International audience; This paper analyses security sector reform (SSR) in Albania. In all its enterprises in reforming the security sector,Albania is assisted by different initiatives and projects that provide expertise and financial support. To assesswhether reforms improved the overall security environment (national and human) of the country, it is necessaryto measure the effectiveness of the various initiatives and projects. This is gauged by how well the initiatives andprojects achieved their defined goals, the level of coordination at the national and international level among thoseinstitutions working in the same specific field, and the sustainability and ownership of reforms. The evaluationof SSR in Albania is primarily based on official national documents, national legislation, situation reports ofAlbanian and international institutions related to reforms in the security sector, and national and internationalpress coverage of security events and incidents.The first part of this work describes the security sector in Albania and provides an overview of the securitychallenges the country faces. The second part of the paper offers an overview of the reforms and supportingprojects in the reformation, democratisation and conversion process of the police, human security and thejustice system. The human security section looks at the various issues of concern in this area via projectsthat encourage law enforcement, combat organised crime and illicit traffic and terrorism, mine action projects,small arms and light weapons control (SALWC), and projects that encourage community policing, etc. The thirdpart then discusses the Albanian Armed Forces (AAF), which are essential to the traditional national securityenvironment. The study closes with an analysis of the role of civil society and public opinion, and also offersrecommendations for national authorities, international authorities and civil social actors.
  • References (29)
    29 references, page 1 of 3

    1 S.K. Pavlowitch (1999). History of the Balkans 1804-1945. UK: Addison-Wesley Longman Publishers. Note 8.

    2 C. P. Danopoulos and K. G. Messas (1997). 'Security and conflict in the Balkans'. C.P. Danapoulos and K.G. Messas (Eds.). Crisis in the Balkans, Views from the participants. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, note 19, p.11.

    3 For more detailed information, see: Z. Brzezinski (1989/90). 'Post-communist nationalism', Foreign Affairs, Vol. 68, No. 5; F.S. Larrabee (1990/91). 'Long memories and short fuses: Change and instability in the Balkans', International Security, Vol. 15, No. 3. pp.58-91.

    4 M.J. Jordan, 'Albania split in two in the Kosova Question', Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE-RL), Vol. 2, Part II, 16th April 1998.

    5 The EU refers to the country as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, i.e. by the provisional name as it is used within the UN system.

    6 The Contact Group is an informal group composed of France, Germany, Italy, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States. It was set up in the early 1990s to respond to the war and crisis in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and subsequently took an active role in the Kosovo status process.

    7 D. Held, A. McGrew, D. Goldblatt and J. Perraton (1999). Global transformations: Politics, economics and culture. California, US: Stanford University Press. p.15.

    8 B. Buzan (1991). People, states and fear: An agenda for international security studies in the post-Cold War era. Hemel Hempstead, UK: Harvester Wheatsheaf. p.12, note 1.

    9 In the national survey organised by the Albanian Institute for International Studies (AIIS) about EU integration, 95 percent of respondents said they favoured Albanian membership in the EU. See: E. Abazi et al. (2008). EU perceptions and realities. Tiarane: AIIS Press. Available at

    10 See: K. Booth and N. Wheeler (1992). Security and strategy in the new Europe. London, UK and New York, US: Colin McInnes. p.4.

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