The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood

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Inga Schalinski; Thomas Elbert; Susann Steudte-Schmiedgen; Clemens Kirschbaum;

Objectives<br />Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator.<br /><br />Methods<br />We investigated the ... View more
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