Adverse Reactions in Allogeneic Blood Donors: A Tertiary Care Experience from a Developing Country
Article, Other literature type
Baig, Mohammad Amjad
Irfan, Syed Mohammed
Ahmed, Syed Ijlal
Hasan, Syeda Faiza
- Publisher: OMJ
Oman Medical Journal
(issn: 1999-768X, eissn: 2070-5204)
Vasovagal | Blood Donors | Original Article | Vasovagal Reaction | R | Adverse Effects | Syncope | Medicine
Objectives: Fragmented blood transfusion services along with an unmotivated blood donation culture often leads to blood shortage. Donor retention is crucial to meet the increasing blood demand, and adverse donor reactions have a negative impact on donor return. The aim of this study was to estimate adverse donor reactions and identify any demographic association.
Methods: We conducted a prospective study between January 2011 and December 2013. A total of 41,759 healthy donors were enrolled. Professionally trained donor attendants drew blood and all donors were observed during and following donation for possible adverse events for 20 minutes. Blood donors were asked to report if they suffered from any delayed adverse consequences.
Results: Out of 41,759 blood donors, 537 (1.3%) experienced adverse reactions. The incidence was one in every 78 donations. The mean age of donors who experienced adverse events was 26.0±6.8 years, and all were male. Out of 537 donors, 429 (80%) developed vasovagal reaction (VVR), 133 (25%) had nausea, 63 (12%) fainted, 35 (6%) developed hyperventilation, 9 (2%) had delayed syncope, and 9 (2%) developed hematoma. Arterial prick, nerve injury, cardiac arrest, and seizures were not observed. Donors aged less than < 30 years and weighing < 70 kg were significantly associated with VVR, hyperventilation, and nausea (p < 0.005). Undergraduates and Urdu speaking donors also had a significant association with fainting and nausea, respectively (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: The prevalence of adverse events was low at our tertiary center. A VVR was the predominant adverse reaction and was associated with age and weight. Our study highlights the importance of these parameters in the donation process. A well-trained and experienced phlebotomist and pre-evaluation counseling of blood donors could further minimize the adverse reactions.