An Evolutionary Framework for Understanding the Origin of Eukaryotes

Article English OPEN
Neil W. Blackstone (2016)
  • Publisher: MDPI AG
  • Journal: Biology, volume 5, issue 2 (issn: 2079-7737, eissn: 2079-7737)
  • Related identifiers: doi: 10.3390/biology5020018, pmc: PMC4929532
  • Subject: eukaryotes | comparative method | modern synthesis | Review | mitochondria | levels of selection | evolutionary theory | phylogenetic systematics | Biology (General) | QH301-705.5

Two major obstacles hinder the application of evolutionary theory to the origin of eukaryotes. The first is more apparent than real—the endosymbiosis that led to the mitochondrion is often described as “non-Darwinian” because it deviates from the incremental evolution championed by the modern synthesis. Nevertheless, endosymbiosis can be accommodated by a multi-level generalization of evolutionary theory, which Darwin himself pioneered. The second obstacle is more serious—all of the major features of eukaryotes were likely present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor thus rendering comparative methods ineffective. In addition to a multi-level theory, the development of rigorous, sequence-based phylogenetic and comparative methods represents the greatest achievement of modern evolutionary theory. Nevertheless, the rapid evolution of major features in the eukaryotic stem group requires the consideration of an alternative framework. Such a framework, based on the contingent nature of these evolutionary events, is developed and illustrated with three examples: the putative intron proliferation leading to the nucleus and the cell cycle; conflict and cooperation in the origin of eukaryotic bioenergetics; and the inter-relationship between aerobic metabolism, sterol synthesis, membranes, and sex. The modern synthesis thus provides sufficient scope to develop an evolutionary framework to understand the origin of eukaryotes.
  • References (65)
    65 references, page 1 of 7

    Darwin, C.. On the Origin of Species. 1964: 1-513

    Darwin, C.. Descent of Man. 2004: 21-158

    Herron, J.C., Freeman, S.. Evolutionary Analysis. 2014: 1-850

    Harvey, P.H., Pagel, M.D.. The Comparative Method in Evolutionary Biology. 1991: 1-239

    Wallin, I.E.. Symbionticism and the Origin of Species. 1927: 1-171

    Margulis, L., Sagan, D.. Microcosmos. 1986: 14-15

    Okasha, S.. Evolution and the Levels of Selection. 2006: 1-263

    Wynne-Edwards, V.C.. Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behavior. 1962: 1-653

    Maynard Smith, J.. Group selection and kin selection. Nature. 1964; 201: 1145-1147

  • Metrics
    No metrics available
Share - Bookmark