Three Liberal Theories of Justice
Liberalismus; theory; justice; Nozick; Rawls; Dworkin; teorie; spravedlnost; Liberalism
The mail goal of this thesis is to introduce the modern theory of liberal justice with a focus on distributive justice. In addition, the author addresses the issue of value neutrality in the liberal state and the concept of equality in liberal theory. The author presents the concept of "justice as fairness" described by liberal political philosopher John Rawls. Afterwards his concept is subjected to criticism of other contemporary liberal philosophers Robert Nozick and Ronald Dworkin. The author briefly looks into coherence between mentioned philosophers and earlier representatives of liberal theory, as well as their non-liberal critics. The first chapter contains a list of thinkers and their contributions to the issue of justice and the social contract theory. The following three chapters concerns the interpretation of the concepts of three mentioned authors using critical analysis of their publications. In the fifth chapter are described concepts of thinkers who critically respond to Rawl's theory of justice generally reffered to as communitarians, including the conception of Jürgen Habermas. In the sixth chapter the author summarizes the main theoretical background and arguments of discussed liberal philosophers. Finally the thesis is concluded by their comparison and summary of key facts and...